A of Maximum Power Tracking of PV

A Photovoltaic Cell Based on MPPT
Techniques: A Review

Shikha Gupta, Omveer Singh and M. A. Ansari

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Department
of Electrical Engineering

School
of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University

Greater
Noida, India

Email:
[email protected]

 

Abstract: As the
utilization of the generated power is developing day after day, the concept of
analyzing renewable energy sources are too broaden. Appropriate to our distinct
energy sources, renewable energy sources are contingent. Solar energy is
broadly recovered as it can correctly switch solar energy into electrical form
with a photovoltaic cell. Energy generated by PV cell is changing with
partially shading conditions, temperature and environmental condition. To seek
the maximum power at distinct condition assorted maximum power point tracking
(MPPT) approach have been refined by the investigator. In the below-mentioned
paper, the abstraction of Maximum Power Tracking of PV System is recommended
and an inspection of 32 elderly and modern MPPT techniques, accessible in the
literature is presented. This paper would turn into a convenient reference for
future performance for PV power production.

 

Keywords:
Solar Cell, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

I.                  
Introduction

With the accelerated advancement
in industries and the forever developing composure of current way of life, the
global energy supply has been dominated by an overwhelming strain. These
circumstances have elevated responsibility for the energy safety and green
sustainability. Moreover, the distribution of climate change and the
requirement companies and nations to devote in alternate energy source,
exceptionally the renewable energy, just as the demand of oil is ascending
incessant, the beneficial economic effect of renewable energy is gradually
being identified. The decline of the fossil power and uranium supply make
renewable energies progressively substantial. Because of an expanding
development in the vitality utilization, so the enthusiasm on utilizing a
greater amount of sustainable sources is likewise expanding. There are various
inexhaustible sources, for example, sun-oriented, biomass vitality, geothermal
vitality, tidal vitality and so forth. Be that as it may, sun-oriented vitality
is broadly utilized these days, as it is an ecological benevolent in nature.
Few of the renewable energies are Hydroelectricity, Wind turbines, and Solar
panels. Moreover, these energies propose a pleasant contingency to lower the
global- warming effect. Throughout the world, importance and management of
solar energy had to pursue preference amid alternate energy resources owed to
its ecological nature and noticeable features. Diminish traditional resources,
environmental conditions, revised semiconductors material and long-term benefit
are few of the intention inclined the custom of limitless solar energy,
electrical energy acquire is liberate from pollution so the system does not
include several machines. In any case, the primary burden of utilizing sun
oriented vitality is its higher introductory cost and lower yield effectiveness.
In common, solar energy is chosen for street lighting, cooking, and water
pumping, electric vehicle. It is recommended to furnish electric power produced
from solar energy remote areas in absences of a power grid. With a specific end
goal to maintain a strategic distance from this disadvantage’s, most extreme
yield control from sunlight based cell ought to be removed utilizing Maximum
Power Point Techniques in order to expand the general proficiency of the board.

Certain approach and design have
been illustrated for MPPT. Various algorithms are Incremental Conductance
method, Perturbation and observation, Fractional open circuit voltage,
Fractional short- circuit current, fuzzy logic control, Genetic Algorithm,
Artificial Neural Network, Hybrid Method, an amalgam of two or modified of some
single techniques. The affairs MPPT techniques have been strongly researched by
few investigators and in this review paper authors aimed to pay attention at on
the effort, these investigators have done.

 

Working of Photo-Voltaic
Cell

The sunlight based cell which
changes over the light vitality into electrical vitality is called photovoltaic
cell and it takes a shot at the rule of photovoltaic innovation. As the
daylight strikes the sunlight based cell, sun-oriented lights of various
wavelength’s hit the surface of PV cell, in this way quantities of photons are
either retained, go directly through the sun oriented cell, or reflected back
by the sun-powered cell. On the off chance that enough number of photons is
consumed by a negative layer of the cell, at that point electrons are liberated
from the negative layer. At that point these free electrons move to the
positive layer of the sun based cell, consequently making the voltage
differential or the present that can be utilized as a part of an outer load. In
this way, with a specific end goal to expand the power yield, cells are
orchestrated in the various examples to shape the sunlight based module. At
that point, these are additionally joined up either in arrangement or in
parallel association with the shape the sunlight based cluster. Figure 1. Shows
different solar modules

 

 

 

Figure.1 Different types Solar
Module

 

 

B. Maximum Power Point Technique

 

The Maximum Power Point Technique
calculation is utilized for acquiring the most extreme yield vitality from the
PV cell what’s more additionally passes it to the heap. The guideline of MPPT
depends on the most noteworthy control exchange hypothesis. A converter is
utilized to change over most extreme power from the sun oriented PV module to
the heap. By changing the obligation cycle the heap impedance is changed and
coordinated with the greatest power purpose of the source, as to exchange the
most extreme power. Figure.2 shows a basic block diagram of MPPT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure.2 Basic
Block Diagram of MPPT

 

 

II.               
Literature Survey

 

Various MPPT
techniques composed of their employment are stated in the literature.
Investigators consistently feel puzzled while choosing an MPPT technique for a
specific function. Unluckily, only a fewer techniques were accessible to the
range containing, Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, fractional
short circuit current, fractional open circuit current. But a lot newly MPPT
techniques such as artificial neural network, Genetic algorithm, modified
P, etc. have been described.

It is essential
to assemble a review that carries all the active and adequate MPPT techniques.
A review contrasting of the MPPT techniques on the action of benefit, drawback,
and control variables elaborate, the category of circuitry, a complication of an
algorithm, complication level on hardware employment is described. MPPT has
been a test for investigators. Many investigators have consigned miscellaneous
techniques to MPPT and circulated this work. Reviews of the minute of them are
granted below:

 

Paper Based
on Solar Cell with Different Junction

 

         H. Bellia et al. 9 given a detailed
model of Photovoltaic module using MATLAB in which irradiance and temperature
are taken as input variables and current, voltage power or different as output
variables. For all that trace the characteristics. The author selected type was
the single diode model alongside the pair of series and parallel resistor for
leading certainty. It was simulated gradually overdue to own continual use and
their potency.

        P. P. Mahajan et al. 13 inclined
major characteristics and specification that includes being deliberated modeled
a photovoltaic module. A 50W PV module was acquired at constant irradiance and
temperature to get the characteristics of IV and PV. The author also
deliberated for the effect of changing environmental circumstances. The planned
model was arranged with user- friendly icons. The planned model formed to be
improved and correct for other temperature and irradiance variations and very
convenient for PV builder and specialist who wish an understandable, speedy and
authentic PV simulator to create their systems.

         A. B. Hussain et al. 6 discussed the
single and triple junction solar cells with I-V and P-V curves; describe the
highest limit of power current and voltage. The authors were also to display
and examine the method of using an object under distinct environment requisite
that influences the solar cells for instance temperature and irradiance. The accomplishment
of both the cells to access by examined the fill factor.

        T. M. Razykov et al. 3 granted about
the present condition besides the forthcoming forecast of the solar
photovoltaic electricity which criticizes the high-tech advancement past in the
preceding certain lifespan in the compass of mono and polycrystalline thin film
photovoltaics.

        G. Khajuria et al. 5 reported about
the multi-junction PV Cells and simulation in MATLAB. To access the
similarities and disparity between single-junction and multi-junction PV cells
to obtain own maximum power point and open circuit voltage. The author was also
reported about the triple-junction PV cells which concluded InGaP, InGaAs, Ge
subcells. For the construction of multi-junction PV cells, miscellaneous judged
was used for opting the material.

          M. S. S. Ashhab et al. 4 bespeak
involved with the utility of the photovoltaic system and intention at becoming
economically the theory and program of a two distinct system that exploits PV
solar systems and sundry supporting source of energy to furnish heating and air
conditioning. A model that produces an air conditioning unit was well built and
apt measurements were composed through a data logging logistics as well as
plotted that too.

 

Paper Based
on Different MPPT Techniques

 

Perturbation
and Observation

      J. Ahmed et.al 24 presented paper
proposed an enhanced P planted MPPT techniques for PV System was refined.
The techniques boost the steady state act of the Conventional P and the
techniques also decrease the chance of defeated the tracking course.

    V. R. Kota et al. 25 conferred a survey
on common MPPT algorithms. Common algorithms endure from reduced efficiency,
fluctuation in steady state power and unfortunate dynamic performance an MPPT
arrangement proving linear tangents located P was proposed.

 

Artificial
Neural Network

         A. K. Rai et al. 23 speak about the Simulink
model of an artificial neural network (ANN) occupying maximum power point
tracking governor has been refined. The controller resides of an ANN tracker
and the superior control unit. The ANN tracker assessment the currents and
voltages associated with a maximum power impact by solar PV array for unstable
cell temperature and radiation. The tracker was inclined to employ a set of 124
arrangements employing the back propagation algorithm. The ability of the ANN
tracker has been approved by engaging distinct test data fixed. Affecting
mastery unit’s application the appraisal of the ANN tracker to adapt the duty
cycle of the chopper to best value wanted for maximum power relocation to the
particularized load.

 

Fuzzy Logic

     M. Nabipour et al. 22 was talked about
the MPPT arrangement adapt utilizing the planned novel fix routine was compared
along conventional direct as well as indirect fuzzy planted MPPT arrangement,
display advantage of the suggested MPPT routine above conventional
arrangements.

 

Incremental
Conductance

       K. Vishweswara 2 outline about the
investigation of incremental conductance which based upon Maximum power point
tracking for a photovoltaic system to have the benefits of low-frequency
exchange. This paper proposes MPPT techniques with an understandable algorithm
for PV power creation system and established on the application of an
incremental conductance of the PV to conclude a best functioning current for
the highest output power.

         R. I. Putri et.al.8 presented paper
proposed Maximum Power Point Tracking for photovoltaic using Incremental
Conductance method with main planned to seek the accomplishment of a maximum
power point tracking scheme which designed incremental Conductance(IC) method
to command the duty cycle of Buck-Boost Converter and to assure the MPPT
performance at its utmost efficiency and after that it was correlated to
universally used algorithm i.e. P&O by which it overcome that IC techniques
display a more excellent accomplishment with inferior oscillation.

 

Modified Perturbation
& Observation

          V. K. Devi et al. 1 conferred to
grab steady state and speedily changeable climatic circumstances. The authors
distinguished two techniques in which modified P&O method was projected and
judged and P&O method was picked for determination because this method
wants to diminish utilization cost with more excellent accomplishment output.
The recommended method was judged for accomplishment across the “Hill Climbing”
P&O method by examining Irradiance, Temperature, Daily Profile, Sunny Day
Tests, etc.

 

Constant
Voltage

       M. Lasheen et al. 20 the presented paper
proposes Maximum Power Pont tracking was designed for entire photovoltaic (PV)
applications. Allow to the authors, the constant voltage (CV) planted MPPT
approach was deliberated single of the better frequently worn capacity in PV
systems. The authors intended for reconstructing the potential of the constant
voltage approach applying PI controller along gains persistent by the genetic
algorithm (GA). The projected approaches have been calculated by numerical
simulation adopting MATLAB covered by the distinct atmospheric condition. For
calculation and comparison study the constant voltage located MPPT techniques
with PI gains consumed by the trial and error (TAE) has been conferred.

 

Adaptive
Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

      A. Mellit et al. 27 discussed paper
manages the displaying also, a reenactment of a PVPS framework utilizing an Adaptive
Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Scheme (ANFIS) and the suggestion of another master setup
PVPS framework. For the displaying of the PVPS framework, it is required to
discover appropriate models for its diverse segments that could give attractive
outcomes under factor climatic conditions keeping in mind the end goal to test
its execution and dependability. The test comes about demonstrate that the
ANFIS performed superior to the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which has
additionally been attempted to demonstrate the framework.

 

Genetic
Algorithm

      C. Larbes et al. 29 paper display a
canny control technique for the MPPT of a photovoltaic framework under factor
temperature and irradiance conditions. A fuzzy logic control based MPPT (FLC)
was then proposed which has indicated better exhibitions contrasted with the
P&O MPPT based approach. The proposed FLC has been too enhanced utilizing
hereditary calculations (GA) for improvement. Distinctive advancement stages
are displayed, what’s more, the optimized fuzzy logic MPPT controller (OFLC) is
then reproduced and assessed, which has appeared.

 

Paper Based
on Comparisons of Different MPPT Techniques

         H. Rezk et al. 7 paper aimed to
study the exhaustive similes of distinct MPPT techniques adjust to PV systems.
In this paper techniques like as Incremental Conductance, high climbing, fuzzy
logic controller, perturb and observe were determined. PSIM and Simulink
software were used. To set up FLC-MPPT techniques; co-simulation was done in
between PSIM and Simulink software package. The reaction of the distinct MPPT
techniques was examined in speedily transforming weather conditions.

        K. K. Kumar et al. 11 inclined the
simulation of incremental conductance maximum power point tracking algorithm
worn in solar array power systems along with direct control techniques due to
it achieve accurate control beneath speedily changeable atmospheric
circumstances. The author also talks about the developing system which was
efficient for tracking MPP’s correctly and immediately without steady-state
fluctuation and also theirs dynamic accomplishment was gratifying.

        W. Christopher et al. 12 consulted
the contingent simulation analysis of the two meaningful MPPT algorithms as
these algorithms are substantial in PV system that it diminishes the PV array
price by lowering the quantity of PV panels requisite to accomplish the want
output power while these algorithms were universally pre-owned by reason of its
reduced cost and calmness of recognition. Voltage, Current and Power output are
few of the important parameters of the techniques. The authors used Matlab
Simulink toolbox has been recycled for achievement taken by a 70 W photovoltaic
array.

       S. Neupane et al. 14 opted a modeled
of Solar PV array which is planted on the equations of single diode PV cells in
MATLAB/Simulink in form to correlate MPPT tracking techniques. Applying
Incremental Conductance and Perturb and Observe algorithm building needs of a
buck converter. A PV array was modeled planted on the electrical aspect of PV
module. A buck converter topology was recycled for the comparison of MPPT. The
author also discussed the results which were shown that incremental conductance
was superior to that of Perturb and Observe algorithm.

       H. Bounechba et al. 32 given an
insightful control technique for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a
photovoltaic framework under variable temperature and isolation conditions was
examined. The MPPT controller for support converter in light of fuzzy logic
controller (FLC) was produced and contrasted with ordinary following
calculation (P&O). Aftereffects of this recreation demonstrate that the
framework with MPPT utilizing fuzzy logic controller increment the productivity
of vitality generation from PV.

 

Paper based
on the Classification of Different MPPT techniques

 

        N. Karami et al. 10 deliberated the
perception of power tracking for PV systems and survey of 40 long- established
and current MPPT methods. The authors presented paper was modeled and conferred
so the primer can choose the better convenient design for his owned operation.
The authors give a provisional table at the end to clarify the contribution of
the distinct way.       

       Priety et al. 15 exercised a review
paper on various types of techniques which were used in MPPT for PV system. The
authors basically talk about the PV System where there is a change of the
maximum power point with the temperature and irradiance of solar likewise non-
linear characteristics of IV and PV curve which involves the tracking of MPP.
The author presented paper proposed the collection of techniques based on MPPT
and dissimilarity between them and then their methods furnish a relevant output
for future performance.

      Z.
Salam et al. 17 given paper discussed the reviewed on soft computing
technique which was positioned PV System MPPT. Healthy soft computing planted
MPPT schemes can be refined expected to their adaptability and capability to
take care of non- linear problems. The authors also talk about the distinct
effort on MPPT utilizing soft computing from which authors prefer nearly 45
published works that were precisely connected to MPPT and the advice on these
approaches was spread.The authors presented paper also compared all the techniques
with their further work.

        M.
Seyedmahmoudin et al. 16 deliberated a review based on MPPT methods in which
maximum power Output of PV System comprehensive research into oversight
approach for MPPT techniques has been composed. The authors presented paper
reviews Al-based methods demonstrate to be adequate and beneficial to discharge
and very typical in literature for MPPT, along with their restraint. The author
also talks the review paper which was a beneficial asset for analyzer and
engineers.

 

Paper Based
on Hybrid MPPT Methods

         O. Celik et al. 18 given the moderate
advancement in functioning current and voltage of Photovoltaic (PV) panel over
directly to the radiation and temperature vacillation comprise a visible
difference in the output energy. The authors propose a hybrid technique to
develop the productivity of the MPPT  controller for diminishing these deviations
and drag the system to perform on (MPP) was grown. The inclined Hybrid MPPT techniques
populate of two loops peculiarly the first specific was ANN fixed conclusion
point setting loop and a second specific was P&O  established fine tuning loop. To evaluate the
straight of the projected method, a contrasting was drifting out by adopting
the typical P&O, incremental conductance (INC) and ANN situated MPPT
methods covered by both speedily changing radiation and partially shaded
circumstances by employing PSCAD/EMTDC scheme.

         M. H. Moradi et al. 28 told that Sun
oriented boards display non-straight current– voltage attributes producing
maximum power at just a single specific working point. Different methods have
been presented for following the maximum control point in light of disconnected
and online techniques. The proposed strategy is reenacted in Matlab/Simulink
condition and tentatively confirmed utilizing a research facility model.  

 

Paper Based
on Real-Time Simulation

 

        H. Bounechba et al. 21 was talked
about real-time simulation of MPPT for PV energy system. The author’s given
paper projected a recent method of MPPT founded on current perturbation
algorithm (CPA) by means of a changeable perturbation step and fractional
short-circuit current algorithm (FSCC) to figure out the most favourable
conditions of operating current. The authors also presented an experimental
approximate analysis of these methods by using Dspace.

 

Paper Based
on varying different parameters

 

     S. Li et al. 19 examined to earn the
maximum power point (MPP) of photovoltaic (PV) system as fast as attainable and
boost the MPPT elasticity to the variable weather circumstances. The authors
give paper projected a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control approach
with variable weathers parameter (VWP) was projected. The MPP distinctness was
resolved and recycled as the theoretical support of amass the MPP control
signal. The uninterrupted relationship between VWP and control signal was
constructed out by the current fitting method which was the essential effort to
appliance this scheduled strategy. Few simulation test demonstration control
strategy was achievable and accessible to the track the MPP and has superior
MPPT work than normal perturbation and observation (P) method beneath
distinct weather conditions and then fuzzy control method beneath speedy changeful
weather conditions.

 

III.                                                           
Conclusion

 

The increasing industrialization
of democracy and unpredictable green circumstances has influenced us to raise
our passion for renewable energies just as solar energy. Photovoltaic power
formation from solar energy is approved by way of MPPT for adequate tracking.
This review paper prompts a fundamental course of few of the MPPT techniques is
summarize. With this utilization cost, tracking efficiency, PV array need,
sensors etc. Each MPPT technique is the difference in its owned approach and
has earned its owned benefit and drawbacks. Accordingly, determining finest of
them is a puzzling working so, an individual has to select carefully while completing
them. From the analysis, the authors achieve that there is a broad opportunity
of bettering in the hybrid MPPT algorithms applying miscellaneous other soft-
computing techniques. Hence this analysis will absolutely be a very valuable
for not exclusively for MPPT consumer but also the engineer and wholesale
manufacturer of PV system.