Fossil competing land use or needed land

Fossil
fuels are reducing day by day, and there is a necessity to find out an
alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Micro-algae have
received substantial attention as a potential biomass for producing sustainable
biofuel. Micro algae based biofuels and their co-products offer abundant support
in helping to meet the Renewable Fuels Standard. Ecological and commercial
growth of industries requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Sustainability
is a key source in natural resource management, and it comprises working
efficiency and minimization of environmental effects. Depletion in the fossil
fuel reserves along with emission of greenhouse gases and growing demand for
energy has necessitated the search for alternative energy resources. Therefore,
several research initiatives aimed at mounting alternative renewable biofuels
as substitute for energy resources. However, different energy resources similar
to first generation biofuels resulted from crops such as sugarcane, maize,
sugar beet etc. place an enormous stress on world food markets and second
generation biofuels derived from lignocellulosic material from nonfood crop
biomass such as wheat straw, wheat bran, corn etc. report some of the above
problems and also there is concern over competing land use or needed land use
changes. Therefore, based on current knowledge third generation biofuels
specifically based on microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative
energy resource that is devoid of the main problems associated with first and
second generation biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms like microalgae
having growth needs like light, sugars, CO2, N, P, and K which will
produce proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in massive amounts over short
periods of time and also help in carbon sequestration which is a major
greenhouse gas. These products can be processed into both biofuels and valuable
co-products. This chapter focuses on the technologies underneath
microalgae-to-biofuels systems, concentrating on the biomass production,
improvement in algae for increasing yield, processing, conversion technologies,
and the extraction of biofuels. Microalgae-based biofuels could progressively
substitute a substantial proportion of the fossil fuels required to meet the
current growing energy demand