Have way. A strong supporter of this

Have you ever
wondered how many things there around us that we don’t see, yet they affect us
in so many different ways? There are four fundamental forces that explain why
things why things fall or revolve, why we can see light and why chemical bonds
exist, why the sun exists or why certain elements need protection due to beta
decay, and why don’t atoms just fly apart? If it weren’t for the very
important, as well as essential forces, many things in our world would be
extremely different. However, in order for these theories to be accepted or at
least viewed, many years had to be spent by the great minds of scientists.

The concept of
gravity was not discovered or known until about 300 years ago. At first, it was
believed that the gods made all planets and all objects follow “natural
motion”, explaining why objects moved a certain way. A strong supporter of this
theory was Aristotle, saying objects were just going back to the natural place.
It was further believed, in the geocentric theory that everything revolved
around Earth, not that the Earth revolved around something else. A scientist by
the name of Copernicus changed this into the heliocentric theory, with the sun
in the middle. Although this theory wouldn’t be understood by many, and
probably not even by Copernicus, this was all because of gravity. In the 1500s,
another astronomer called Galileo Galilei proved such theory. It wasn’t until
the late 1600s that Isaac Newton
discovered gravity with the ideas of an object falling straight down, the moon
orbiting the earth and not flying
straight off. He concluded it was due to an external force he named gravity, as
stated in the book he published, Principia. These new laws and theories
were all accepted, as well as used, for many years to come, until a scientist
called Albert Einstein redefined gravitational force in the general theory of
relativity, that describes the relationship between matter and motion that objects
with mass actually bend the very fabric of space and time.

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I think that what
is mainly accepted today is Isaac Newton’s views on gravity, simply because I
don’t think it is as complicated as what Albert Einstein thought. In school, we
aren’t taught what Albert Einstein believed. Plus, Einstein’s theory would only
apply to very advanced science, one we wouldn’t use frequently. In the past,
simple theories that would appear correct to the “physics surfer” were accepted
simply because it seemed what was easiest to accept and not much thought was
needed.

The next
fundamental force, called electromagnetism, is responsible for basically
everything we see. Light, life, and the bonds that exist in atoms into
molecules exist only because of electromagnetism. Electromagnetism didn’t exist
until a Danish physicist named Hans Christian Ørsted, found the connection
between electricity and magnetism. Before this, however, electricity, as well
as magnetism were studied separately. Magnetism was seen when fur would attract
small objects (static electricity) and would later be used in the form of a
compass by the Chinese in the years BC. Electricity also became a major topic
to be studied with Benjamin Franklin’s experiment with the kite and lightning,
sparking new thoughts and theories upon the subject. Going back to Ørsted, the
way he discovered the connection was by turning on and off electricity from a
battery and noticed the pointer needle from his compass kept getting deflected
when he would turn the electricity back on. Later on, Andre Ampere finds that
wires carrying electric current produce
forces upon each other, adding on to the study of electrodynamics. That same
year of 1820, Michael Faraday developed an idea that of an electric field, like
a magnetic field, and tests the effect the electric field has on magnets. His
studies helped by establishing the basis for the concept of the electric field
for physics. Shortly after, James Clerk Maxwell bases the theory of
electromagnetism on mathematics using all of the previous scientists’ theories
and mathematical equations and Maxwell also creates predictions on the
connection of magnetism and electricity. Later, Albert Einstein explains the
photoelectric effect, winning him the Nobel Prize, stating that light could exist
in photons.

I believe that
what is most accepted today would be the views of Albert Einstein because he
won a major prize off his discovery on photoelectric studies which undermined
the very foundations of electromagnetism. This would indicate that a lot of
scientists must have agreed with him for him to have won the Noble Prize. In
the past, I think that what was accepted was whatever new idea surfaced because
all it did was expand further in the topic, not really contradicting theories,
except for Alessandro Volta, proving electricity could come from chemicals, not
just humans. In addition to this, all scientists were using hard solid,
mathematical proof.

Weak nuclear
force, being the second fundamental force, also has the shortest range of
potency. In 1899, Ernest Rutherford devised weak nuclear force to explain beta
decay, or the radioactive transformation of an atomic nucleus causing the
emission of an electron. In 1911, physicist discovered an atom loses more
energy during beta decay than the energy of the electron that’s emitted. This
all suggests that there’s another way energy is released in beta decay, which
lead to the conclusion that there was a new particle that does not have charge.
Enrico Fermi named this particle a neutrino. He showed that the electrons
released on beta decay were not coming from the electron cloud, but seemed to
be new electrons, coming from the
nucleus. Fermi considered the weak nuclear force to be a force with no range
but acted on physical contact, causing a neutron to spontaneously decay to a proton and emitting an electron.

I believe that
Fermi’s theories, studies, as well as equations are what is accepted today, due
to the fact that he basically discovered the whole process. He discovered the
outcome, as well as what was needed to produce beta decay with the weak nuclear
force. In the past, not much was known about weak nuclear force, however, what
was known was that of the studies of Rutherford explaining how beta decay occurred, but these studies were improved on by
Fermi, creating what I believe is most accepted.

At first, people
believed what held a particle together was electromagnetism, but it was later
discovered this was not the case, as suggested by Eugene Wigner. Because the
charge of protons is positive, it should’ve made the particle to come apart,
but obviously, this was not the case,
creating the idea of another force. In 1932, British physicist, James Chadwick,
discovered that the nucleus of all atoms contained neutrons. Strong nuclear
force is the force that provides attraction between the components of each particle
(protons and neutrons). To explain strong nuclear force in simple terms,
protons and neutrons are made of quarks, which are attracted by another
particle called gluons. The attraction between gluons is very strong, holding the particle together.
Throughout the following years, up to around the 1970s, the discovery of
different quarks and what gluons were would be discovered by different
physicists and scientists.

I think that what
is accepted today is the latest studies, due to the fact that more and more
explanations for what keeps a particle together, using the strong nuclear
force, were made. It was further deduced
that there were new charges within the particle, as well as other subatomic
particles that held protons and neutrons together. In the past, I think what
was most accepted was the electromagnetism theory because it was what kept the
electron within the atom, or that perhaps there were electrons within the
nucleus holding it together. Due to the technical
limitation, these two theories are what made the most sense at the time.

No matter the time
period, or the technology, scientists all over the world were trying to come up
with explanations as to why things occurred the way that they do. With the hard
work, time spent, and dedication of scientists, theories were corrected and
improved upon for the world. If it weren’t for these great minds, our views on
the world would probably not be the same.