IMMIGRATION Agents of an economy range from










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        Immigration can be looked at in two
different perspectives. First, it involves relocating from one’s original country
temporarily or permanently to another for various reasons which can be in
search of employment, social amenities, better living standards, safety from
political strives or even running away from disasters. (Gove, Michael, 2017) It’s
a key player in any integration process since it deals with people’s movement
and factors of production. (Peri, Giovanni, 2010). The second perspective is
about an office usually located at the airport which offers citizenship
services, registering births and deaths, managing boarders, managing integrated
population registration system, managing refugees and visa management. The
reasons for these migrations can either be necessitated by pull or push
factors. Pull involves factors which necessitate moving to a particular country
like for example better services, good climate, higher employment, more wealth,
political stability etc. push factors on the other hand necessitate leaving a
particular country which might be affected by political instability, calamities
such as floods and drought, wars, high crime rates due to insecurity etc.
(Hendrik, 2013) it results in both positive and negative results to the country
people moves to and from the countries people leave. A 2005 united Nations
report showed that there are almost 191 million immigrants worldwide which
contributes to about 3% of the world’s population. This was an increase of more
than 26 million as from 1990 (Elia Leandro, 2017). This essay will therefore explain
how this immigration affects employment opportunities, cultural diversity, economic
factors and control frontiers.


         This are areas of production, trade or
distribution and consumption of goods and services by different consumers.
Agents of an economy range from businesses, organizations, government and
individuals who pose as consumers. (James and Paul, 2015). Immigration is still
a highly debatable topic in most host countries. Some people believe these
immigrants bring many advantages in terms of economic growth and the society at
large while others argue that when in large numbers, they threaten national
identity, increase dependence on welfare and threaten national security through
illegal immigration and terrorism activities. In support of this, many people
argue that the government spends a lot on these immigrants in terms of
education, healthcare, food assistance programs and general welfare which slows
down economic growth as this resources could have been channeled somewhere else
(Andrew Wallace,2008). This is not true because Immigration increases the level
of labor in form of human capital in an economy. This occurs when some
immigrants bring their skills and work to the country they migrate to
increasing production of that country. Immigrants also bring capital inform of
assets or finances that are spent in the country that they relocate to. The increasing
level of labor, human capital, and capital in the economy has positive effects
due to increasing competition, higher production and reduced costs due to
availability of labor. This results in specialization which means that these laborers
fill certain positions at cheaper and more efficient rates. Specialization also
lowers production costs increasing social welfare, (Manny Manolios). A transport
agency in Auckland recently established that congestion in the city is growing
at a rate of 2.4% per year and the number of cars in the city is growing at a
faster rate compared to population. Annual population growth in UK has
increased from 146, 000 to 513,000 between 1992 and mid-2015. This has
increased the demand for housing which is in low supply. It is thus anticipated
that housing costs are going to increase in the near future. (Barker, 2004). Immigration
however, has been proofed beyond doubt to be a key economic growth booster. This
is because immigration supplies workers which in turn increases GDP. Immigrants
in the USA for example has helped it to avoid the fate of stagnant economies created
by only demographic forces. (Stuart Anderson, 2016).

                                                    Control Frontiers

      A person becomes an asylum by making a
formal application for the right to remain in a particular country and maintains
the asylum status until his application is accepted. This protection grants him
international protection. He/she might be a refugee, migrant or a displaced
person. Immigration authorities of that country are responsible for determining
whether they grant the individual the rights or not. (Charles A. Wiegand,
2016). If he is granted the asylum status, he will be officially recognized as
a refugee that is; if his circumstances fall in the refugee category based on
refugee convention of 1951 and other recognized refugee laws. The person will
therefore be granted full protection by that country. If, however he is denied
the Asylum protection, he will be recognized as an illegal migrant and he will
have no choice but to leave that country or be deported back to his native
country. (Maria Teresa, 2006). Seeking asylum in industrialized nations however
has become a challenge for most refugees as reported by non -governmental
organizations. This is because their immigration policy focuses on the fight
against illegal immigration for purposes of strengthening border controls. They
therefore prevent displaced persons from entering their borders from which they
can seek an asylum claim. (Maria Teresa, 2006). Australia for example which is
opposed to Trumps withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific partnership, prefers an
open indo-pacific which has implemented some tough laws to oppose immigration.
This includes revoking 457 Visa for skilled migrants and replacing it with a
visa program which is very strict and tough for workers from other nations.
President Trump on the other hand recently announced that he was going to roll
back an Obama executive order intended to give relief to illegal immigrants
brought to U.S by their guardians when they were minors. (Jacques Delacroix,
2017). Debates about border controls, migration status, movement of   and
eruption of political violence has evolved progressively over the last decade.
They have been marred by a language of unease and suspicion transforming the
way they are framed as problems. Border controls have become less of a matter
of legal distinction between citizens and foreigners but more of frontiers of
fears. (Rodney Benson, 2016).  Contrary
to trumps claims, immigrants are not more likely to commit more crimes when
compared to the natives. They for example only make 5% of the nation’s prison
inmates but comprise 7% of the total population. Out of the 1.9 million
immigrants convicted of crimes, less than half of them are in the country
illegally. (New York Times, 2017).



       People have a choice of searching for a
job that meets their needs. This could be better payment a job that utilizes
their skills optimally. It’s for this reason that immigrants move to other countries
in search for employment to cater for this needs. Payment is usually in terms
of wages or salaries depending on the job. Research by Tessa Berenson, (2016)
says that immigrants can’t reduce the chances of natives getting employed.  Only prior immigrants are affected by the
entry of new immigrants. Others believe high immigration rates cheapen labor.
This may be true if we have to consider the Brookings institute report of 1980
to 2007 which said that immigration only caused a 2.3% depression of wages in
the host country. According to David Card (2007), increased immigration has a
small negative effect on the relative wages of low skilled native workers and a
small positive overall effect.  Total
immigration to the United States between 1990 and 2007 indicated a 6.6% to 9.9%
increase in real income per worker. (Giovanni Peri, 2009).  Another argument is that undocumented
immigrant’s lower wages by approximately 3 to 8% of low skilled jobs. Americans
who compete with immigrants for these jobs make an additional of 25$ a week but
it’s also true that first generation immigrants can earn more than native born
citizens, (Tessa Berrenson, 2016). In a bureau census survey of 2012, the
center for immigration studies estimated that average welfare cost of a
household headed by a legal or illegal immigrant was $6,234 and $5,692
respectively. This was higher than the average cost of household headed by a
natural born citizen whose cost was $4,431. Immigrants also received more cash,
food and medical welfare, (Ben Rosen, 2016). Wages paid to undocumented workers
in low skill positions cuts down production costs lowering prices for the
American consumer in industries like Agricultural products, restaurants and


         Customs and traditions of a person can
be affected due to change of environment. This can result when the person
adopts the tradition of the place to which he moves to. The traditions of the
natives of that place can also be altered if they embrace the lifestyle of this
newcomers. Britain for example boasts of a very rich tradition involving around
architecture, football, cinema, literature and history and British food. Over the
years, Britain has received immigrants who have different traditions to the
British ones. This is common to immigrants of Asian origin. (Annett Handle,
2016). There is also a group of immigrants who have secluded themselves from
the British culture and continue to hold onto their traditions. Most Asian
communities have adopted the British lifestyle. This is always observed during
festive seasons like Christmas where they also celebrate by buying gifts,
decorating their houses and preparing traditional meals on that special day.
Native Asians have a different culture basing on their religious believes. There
has been however adoption of immigrant’s culture by the British natives. This is
as a result of mass immigration of individuals from different countries with different
traditions. The presence of so many blacks and Asian people for example has
introduced a new array of norms. Native Britons got exposed to the sounds of
Jamaica and food from India. Youths in particular embraced music and culture of
the black immigrants. These black immigrants were however not accepted by
everyone. They faced a lot of racial discrimination which led to the 1980 race
riots. (Pitlane Magazine, 2018).  This has
also been observed in culturally diverse and immigrant receiving communities. They
are discriminated in different ways which include; socially distancing of their
culture and customs, deliberate exclusion from the labor market, harassment and
death of their leaders etc.  those who
discriminate are always afraid of losing their identity which they see to be
superior to that of immigrants.


      Immigration as discussed is seen to have both
detrimental and positive effects on the economy, culture, control frontiers and
employment. The economy of most countries in UK has been affected the most. It is
seen that immigrants in large numbers has caused overcrowding in the cities
which has surpassed supply of housing. This has strained the economy as the
available houses have become more expensive than before. The increase in
numbers has also led to increase in the number of cars being purchased. This is
both detrimental to the environment due to pollution and to the economy as jams
slow down production by delaying factors of production. Roads are also largely
affected and since houses are being erected everywhere to take care of the
increasing population, it will be difficult finding space to build roads. Immigrants
who leave the country back to their native countries also leave with remittances
taking away resources needed to build the economy. Control frontiers has been
strengthened over the years to cub against illegal immigration of refugees. This
is because most terrorists enter the country claiming they are refugees then
cause terror attacks. Right now it is very hard to be granted asylum in
industrialized nations because of security concerns. The countries prefer
protecting their own native citizens against harm from the outside. Employment has
also been affected in various ways. Skilled immigrant employees have been seen
to reduce wages of semi-skilled immigrants and natives who only have a high school
diploma. In USA for example, immigrants are treated and earn better than
natives. This is because they on average receive more cash, medical and food
welfare. Culture also has had its effects on the UK traditions. This is where
by some traditions have been absorbed leading to abandonment of other
traditions. This however has not been done smoothly as most people have faced
discrimination based on their cultural diversity. Blacks for example have been
greatly affected due to racial discrimination. Others have also been affected
where by the natives have ill -treated them with the fear that they might lose
their traditions. On the other hand, some immigrants have refused or are unable
to integrate culturally thus embracing their own culture which tends to brush
shoulders with the natives’ culture. Immigration therefore needs to be
controlled for purposes of the natives.



Vincenzo; Elia, Leandro (2017-01-01). “Migration, Diversity, and Economic
Growth”. World Development. 89: 227–239. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.08.012.

Darryl. “Immigration Measure Introduced.” The Washington Post 13 May
2005. 11 Dec. 2007