supply chain involves suppliers, manufacturer, warehouse, retailers and finally
customers. Due to existence of superior alternatives, today customers are more
demanding, looking for wide variety of products at shortest possible delivery
time, even willing to configure the product to their specifications. This has
brought the shift from passive acceptance of customer to active involvement in
the design and delivery of products and services. The exceptions of earlier
supply chain like desired product delivered in right quantity to the right
location in time, damaged free and correctly invoiced are reality of today.
Traditionally the focus of supply chain network is economic benefit i.e. cost
minimization or profit maximization.
concept is changing from economic value to market value to Relevance. Increased
pressure on cost and globalization of supply chain have further complicated the
supply chain. These have brought tremendous changes in the traditional supply
chain. The supply chain has become an integral part of strategic management
with most of the companies and even considered as competing strategy.
today’s environment, the concept of integrated supply chain is widely used by
large enterprises. Still in classic supply chain, the concept of environment or
TBL (Triple bottom line) is not considered. It will be pertinent to mention
here that organizations are also looking at CSR initiatives as part of their
larger responsibility towards society. CSR activities focuses more on business
ethics, local employment and local concerns whereas green supply chain
management focus on environmental issues. Shell Puget was fined in US for
non-compliance of environmental regulations1. This indicates that
legal framework is tightening noose around the companies for violations in
regard to environment. There are many more1 alike examples.
manufacturing industries are seen as culprits for damaging the environment. The
current state and trend of environmental degradation (from regulatory,
consumer, and moral standpoints) indicate a need for a change in manufacturing
philosophy. There must be a fundamental shift in the way production systems
operate. Beamon , (1999) in his study said that sustainability can be achieved
by minimizing the resource use and waste generation, closed supply chain. The
greening of supply chain involves the consideration of environment. The
increasing customer awareness about environment, legal framework and pressures
from stakeholders (consumers, government regulatory bodies, competitors,
non-profit or non-government organizations, investors, employees, shareholders,
etc.) have forced the organizations to think of Green supply chain. Thinking
Green has become buzz word in today’s corporate world. In 1997, Kyoto protocol
was adopted by both developed and developing countries to reduce the CO2
emission (Greenhouse gas).
concept of green supply chain applies to product or services through entire
product life cycle. All products manufactured within the supply chain, and the
applied materials and substances used in the process are expected to meet
environmental standards for design, development, distribution, use, disposal or
recycling. The comprehensive approach
includes reducing energy, water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions,
increasing use of renewable energies, Enhancing appropriate waste management
and training of employees. The growing awareness about the conservation of
environment is partly attributed to media also. The consumers in the developed
countries are more concerned about the environmental friendly products. The
biggest challenge of the green supply is to integrate the suppliers and
customers in a collaborative way.
Green or Sustainable Supply Chain can be defined as “the process of using
environmentally friendly inputs and transforming these inputs through change
agents – whose byproducts can improve or be recycled within the existing
environment. Green supply chain management can be defined as integrating
environmental thinking into supply-chain management, including product design,
material sourcing and selection, manufacturing processes, delivery of the final
product as well as end-of-life management of the product after its useful life.
We can define green supply chain management (GSCM) as management practice which
considers the impact of environment in its existing supply chain, use of
resources efficiently, elimination or minimization of waste ( energy, water,
air, hazardous materials) and reverse logistics. Sustainable supply chain
includes forward supply chain and closed loop supply chain including reverse
logistics, remanufacturing, and product recovery.
supply chain management is now-a-days a part of strategic management at board
level of many companies. European automotive companies like BMW Group,
Volkswagen, PSA Peugeot, Ford, Volvo, Land Rover, Jaguar, Scania, Daimler and
Toyota have already formed the automotive working group on supply chain
sustainability. They are working on common guiding principles for
sustainability. There is no conclusive evidence or empirical evidence available
which states that GSCM practices have positively impact the profitability of
has been enough literature which discuss about enablers, barriers, motivations,
advantages. supplier selection, supplier integration , inter or intra organizational
capabilities or integration of suppliers etc. in entire supply chain. During literature
review, it was observed that the words like Green supply chain management (GSCM)
or sustainable supply chain management (SSCM)or sustainable green supply chain management
(SGSCM) has been interchangeably used.
discussions have started about performance measurement of Sustainable supply
paper focuses on identifying the performance parameters for SSCM.
organizations are still in very nascent stage of establishing the links between
GSCM or SSCM and their impact on overall performance management. The companies
need to develop the capabilities to measure the performance of their
Sustainable operations. The environmental criteria’s in SCM are increasingly
becoming important for competitive advantage and for business performance. The
main questions for researchers and organizations are 1) which criteria’s to be
measured, 2) do the organizations have capabilities to measure, 3) to establish
linkages between environmental criteria’s and business performance.
the literature review, literature was selected based on various regions
The free trade agreement between North American
countries (USA, Canada, and Mexico) came into existence in January 1994. Wisner
et al, (2005) conducted study on the impact of NAFTA (North American Free Trade
Agreement) on environmental responsiveness and performance by Mexican industry.
They conducted structured in-depth interview with 236 Mexican companies and
then applied Log logit method modelling. They concluded that the regulatory influence
and market pressure have positive impact on environmental performance of
Moralli et al (2013) conducted the study on extent of integration of Sustainability
principles into Supply Chain management and evaluation of supplier performance.
They used content analysis for 100 Canadian companies and 18 in-depth interviews.
They concluded that integration of sustainability principles on supply chain management
is increasing. Tajbakhsh et al (2014) conducted the study on KPI for entire sustainable
supply chain and concluded performance of SSCM should be evaluated across the chain
and suggested the comprehensive framework.
3. USA: Beamon ,(1999)
conducted a study to analyse the current state of environment in USA and
integration of environment into traditional supply chain management. He suggested
new performance parameters for SSCM and concluded that profitability can be
increased by reducing the liability risks due to environment hazards.
Lo,(2013) conducted the study to establish the relationship between uncertainties
and the motivations for implementing GSCM depending upon the position in supply
chain. They conducted the in-depth interviews with 12 Taiwanese companies and
secondary data was used from various sources (e.g. company’s website). They
developed the single cases and then made cross case analysis.
5. South East Asia (SEA)-Rao
et all (2005) conducted the study on establishing link between Greening of
supply chain and their impact on environmental and economic performance. They
conducted in-depth interviews and then use the Linear SEM approach. They
concluded that greening of supply chain has positive impact on economic performance
and competitiveness and proposed a theoretical framework.
6. Asia Emerging Economies (ASEAN +Korea
+ China): Geng et al (2016) conducted a study to understand
the relationship between GSCM practices in manufacturing companies and their
impact on Firm Performance. They used Meta-analysis
on 50 studies published between 1996 and
2014. They concluded that adoption of five GSCM practices namely Inter-Organisational
environment Management, Product Eco-design, Green Supplier Integration, green
customer cooperation and reverse logistics have positive impact on firm performance
parameters economic performance, environmental performance and operational
performance and social performance depending upon the size, and industry type.
(2014) conducted a study in identifying and analyzing drivers and barriers for
SSCM. They suggested a theoretical / conceptual framework sustainable supply
chain development and KPI for performance management of SSCM. Their approach
was based on literature review and four organization theories (e.g. RBV, Institutional,
Stakeholder and Social network)
Govindan et l (2015) conducted a study on establishing interrelationship and interdependence
between GSCM drivers and performance indicators. They used the integrated intuitionistic
DEMATEL approach to develop a comprehensive list, followed by a case study in automobile
company located in Iran. They concluded that internal management support, green
purchasing and ISO 14001 Certification are the most important criteria’s for
9. China: Yu
et al (2017) conducted a study to develop conceptual framework which provides
relationship between three dimensions of iGSCM namely internal GSCM, GSCM with
customers and GSCM with suppliers) and operational performance parameters
namely flexibility, cost, delivery and quality. Their study is based
questionnaire based survey with 126 automotive Chinese firms and use of SEM for
analysis the relationship between construct. They concluded that there is positive correlation
between three dimensions of integrated Green Supply Chain Management and operational
Mitra, (2013) conducted a study on implementation of GSCM in India. They
conducted questionnaire based survey and in-depth interview with 232 Indian
manufacturing companies and then analyzed the data with SEM approach. They
concluded that pro-active collaboration with suppliers supports environmentally
sustainable product design and logistics which improves the economic
performance and competitiveness. Dubey et al (2017) conducted the study or
understanding the impact of institutional pressures on sustainable performance
management and the role of organization culture on Institutional pressure. They
conducted questionnaire based survey of 277 respondents from Indian industries
and concluded that there is positive relation between them. Mani.V et al (2015)
conducted a study on understanding the different dimensions of “Social” sustainability
in Indian Manufacturing companies. This study is based on comparative case and they
concluded that the majority of social dimension in Indian Manufacturing companies
revolve around equity, child labour, bonded labour, education, wages, ethics
and philanthropy despite of many similarities or/ and differences. Mani et
al(2017) conducted a study to identify the dimensions of social sustainability.
This study is based on in-depth interviews with 27 Indian manufacturing
companies and hypotheses testing with SEM model. They concluded that 18
measures categorized under five dimensions namely Labor rights, safety and
health, societal responsibility, diversity and product responsibility are
playing vital role and have positive relation to sustainability performance. Katiyar
et al (2017) conducted a study to understand the impact of supply chain
functions namely planning performance, sourcing performance, manufacturing
performance, delivery performance and sustainability performance have impact on
performance of Supply chain. They identified the factors with the help of
questionnaire and survey and used partial least squares and AHP to calculate
supply chain performance index.