IPv4 have security and wasn’t intended to

IPv4 and IPv6 are internet protocols,
with IPv4 being older and IPv6 being the newer version. “Internet protocols specifies
the technical format of packets and the addressing scheme for computers to
communicate over a network” (Beal, Vangie). IPv4 uses 32-bit source and
destination address fields; because of this IPv4 is limited to a little bit
more than four billion addresses. Although, four billion addresses are a lot,
this limitation sparked the need and development of IPv6. IPv6 uses 128-bit source
and destination address fields; giving IPv6 a huge amount of available
addresses.

Another change besides the huge
difference in space, is that IPv4 IP addresses come in the form of four one-byte
decimal numbers (ex. 192.168.1.1), while IPv6 IP addresses are shown in
hexadecimal numbers (ex. fe80::d4a8:6435:d2d8:d9f3b11) (Sabarinath). In
addition to the change in look there is also a change in abilities between IPv4
and IPv6. An IPv4 packets requires 576 bytes with optional fragmentation while IPv6
requires 1280 bytes without fragmentation. IPv4 supports broadcast while IPv6
does not. IP to MAC resolution is done by broadcast ARP in IPv4 while its done
by Multicast Neighbor Solicitation in IPv6. Next, IPv4 does not have security
and wasn’t intended to be secure while IPv6 has security with things like encryption
and authentication. Furthermore, IPv4 headers are 20 bytes with 13 fields and
IPv6 headers are 40 bytes and 8 fields. Lastly, there are quite a few ISP that
have connectivity with IPv4 or IPv4 and IPv6, but not with just IPv6 (Sabarinath).

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Along with the differences there
are also advantages to IPv6 over IPv4. With IPv6 one no longer has a need for NAT
aka network address translation. IPv6 also comes with autoconfiguration.
Autoconfiguration has two types “stateless” and “stateful”. Autoconfiguration is
used to give addressing and service information. This is
similar to how DHCP is used in IPv4, hence eliminating the need for DHCP. IPv6
doesn’t suffer from private address collisions and has better multicast
routing. IPv6 also has a simpler header format and more efficient routing
compared to IPv4. IPv6 has quality of service (QoS) which is sometimes referred
to as flow labeling (Beal, Vangie). As mentioned earlier
IPv6 has built in authentication and privacy support which is really important
considering IPv4’s lack of security. IPv6 has more compatibility with mobile
networks when compared with IPv4. Lastly IPv6 offers more flexibility, options
and extension than IPv4. This in turn makes IPv6 networks much easier to administrate
than an IPv4 network (Beal, Vangie).