Ø of our conceptions, interpreting and acting

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Learning is increase of knowledge, remembering, the
achievement of facts, processes which can be recalled or developed in practice,
generalization of meaning and an explanatory process aimed at the understanding
of reality. Learning commencements play an important role in student’s study
behaviour in higher (tertiary) education, because “we view the world through
the lenses of our conceptions, interpreting and acting in accordance with our
understanding of the world” (Pratt, 1992, p. 204). Learning and knowledge are observed
as parallel tracks leading to the same purpose. People tend to equate knowledge
with isolated units of information or simply facts and learning is subsequently
the transfer of these detached units into the head of the learner (Säljö,
1979b, p. 446). People have been trying to understand learning for over 2000
years. Learning theorists have carried out a debate on how people learn that
began at least as far back as the Greek philosophers, Socrates (469 –399 B.C.),
Plato (427 – 347 B.C.), and Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C). The active role of
learners was also emphasized by Vygotsky (1978), who pointed to other supports
for learning. Vygotsky was deeply interested in the role of the social
environment, included tools and cultural objects, as well as people, as agents
in developing thinking. Perhaps the most powerful idea from Vygotsky to
influence developmental psychology was that of a zone of proximal development
(Vygotsky, 1978), described in Box 4.1. It refers to a bandwidth of competence
(Brown and Reeve, 1987) that learners can navigate with aid from a supportive
context, including the assistance of others. I do believe that the use of
modern technology in correct way can enhance the learning process in a great
way.

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Ø 
 Kizlik
defines assessment as a process by which information is obtained relative to
some known objective or goal. Assessment is a broad term that includes testing.
For example, a teacher may assess the knowledge of English language through a
test and assesses the language proficiency of the students through any other
instrument for example oral quiz or presentation. Based upon this view, we can
say that every test is assessment but every assessment is not the test. In a
comprehensive and specific way, classroom assessment may be defined as the
process of gathering, recording, interpreting, using and communicating
information about a child’s progress and achievement during the development of
knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes. (NCCA, 2004). Assessment FOR
learning or formative assessment occurs when teachers use influences about
student progress to inform their teaching. The distinct characteristic of
formative assessment is student involvement. If students are not involved in
the assessment process, formative assessment is not practiced or implemented to
its full effectiveness. Assessment OF learning or summative assessment occurs
when teachers use evidence of student learning to make judgments on student
achievement against goals and standards. The purpose of this assessment is to
help the teacher, student and parent know how well student has completed the
learning task. Assessment as learning means to use assessment to develop and
support student’s metacognitive skills. This form of assessment is crucial in
helping students become lifelong learners.