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Ömer Bozkurt

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IDE : 229 The History of American
Culture

Prof. Dr. Arda ARIKAN

 

Manifest Destiny in the American
History

Manifest
Destiny  is a term utilized to portray
the reason behind the US expansion into the West.The Americans in the 1800s
accepted that it was the noteworthy obligation of their nation to expand to the
Pacific Ocean. They accepted that the land was legitimately theirs, given by
Providence to the United States. They disregarded the reality that the
land  was already occupied and they began
to move west. They did not recognize the Indians as individuals; they saw them
as possible slaves, so they basically murdered them and took their land.

The
thought of westward expansion and Manifest Destiny had positive and negative
impacts on the legislative issues, society and the financial matters of the
United States and the Local Americans living there at the time. Approaches that
were made and Presidents that were chosen favored the individuals of the United
States and the Local Americans had no choice but to endure from the changing
and expanding development. There were numerous political impacts of Manifest
Destiny  that formed the entirety
development westward.

Expansionists
were decided to get land either through war or arrangement. In spite of the
fact that it was assumed to be intentional for the Local Americans to take off,
numerous Local Americans who were  living
there denied and were in this manner constrained out of their homes and off their
land. Andrew Jackson, in his second State of the Union Address in 1830, spoke
about the “benevolent” arrangement in which the United States government will
pay for the resettlement of the Local American individuals.

The
arrangement was not truly benevolent; tribes were obliterated and land titles
were taken. In spite of the fact that Jackson needed reasonable trade, the
Local Americans were not eager to be expelled from their land. When Polk heard
this news, he ordered U.S. troops into the terrority between the Rio Grande and
the Nueces River that the United States claimed as its own. This political
impact was that America pursued war with Mexico in endeavor to take control of
Texas.

The
Mexican-American War was a characterizing point of the Polk Organization.
President James Polk, who was exceptionally pro-expansion, felt it was vital to
send military staff into Mexico due to the danger of attack into Texas by the
Mexican strengths. Mexico had made this risk exclusively since Texas was to be
attached into the United States. Polk sent a strategy emissary into Mexico and
they rejected it and went advance to attack US region and then individuals were
slaughtered. Polk said in his war message that he felt he had no choice in
securing US citizens and boundaries since both issues were entwined.

At the
time, pundits of Manifest Destiny and the war with Mexico felt that Polk
affects the Mexican War since he really wanted the land from Mexico.

American
troops in Mexico, led by U.S. generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott,
scored one military victory after another. After about a year of fighting,
Mexico conceded defeat. On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico
signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Under
the arrangement of Guadalupe-Hidalgo which came at the conclusion of the war,
the Rio Grande was settled as the Southern border of Texas. Also, for 15
million dollars, the US obtained land that is nowadays the states of
California, Arizona, New Mexico Utah, Nevada, and parts of the Colorado and
Wyoming.

” Five
years later, in 1853, President Franklin Pierce authorized James Gadsten to pay
Mexico an additional $10 million for another piece of territory south of the
Gila River in order to secure a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean.
Along with the settlement of the Oregon boundary and the Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, the Gadsen purchase established the current borders of the contiguous
48 states” (137).

Manifest
Destiny and the laws and arrangements created to support the idea, had numerous
negative social impacts on the Local Americans. Clearly, there was a
requirement for their land as individuals moved westward but the Indians
endured.

President
Jackson arranged to take over most, in the event that not all, Indian land
whether the Indians be eager to it or not. According to Chief John Edge in
1826, the Cherokee nation was totally encompassed by Tennessee, Carolina,
Alabama, Georgia and the Creek Nation. He was not cheerful about this since the
white populace brought slaves with them and this caused a blend of African and
Cherokee blood which he considered a misfortune and disrespect. He was too
disturbed about the ministers that were sent to attempt and change the Cherokee
to their convictions.

By the
time the westward travel finished, four thousand Cherokees had passed away
since the whites needed their land. The Cherokee sent an emissary to Jackson to
which Jackson proclaimed that all of their land must be given to the white
people. In addition to the social and political changes that effected the
Indians, there were changes pointed at the economy which moreover contrarily
influenced the Indians. One act that contrarily influenced the Indians was the
Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. This act was made to offer assistance the
development of a railroad and transmit lines from the Missouri Waterway to the
Pacific Ocean.

Permit
was given to the company making the railroad that they can take away any land
touching that of which the railroad is to be built on inside 200 feet in width.
In spite of the fact that the railroad was an extraordinary affect of Manifest
Destiny since it permitted for speedier transportation of products and
individuals to and from the west, it legitimately permitted for Indian
land  titles to be extinguished.  However, there were numerous positive
financial aspects for American citizens who were moving westward. The Homestead
Act of 1862 was an motivation for individuals to move west.

The
Homestead Act expressed that any citizen who was 21 years old or more and had
been obedient to America was entitled to public land in the West at a very low
price. The first Homestead Act required the settler to pay twenty-five cents an
acre for his land and was passed by Congress in 1860; however, the bill was
vetoed by President Buchanan. The objective of the Homestead Act was to support
individuals to settle out westward in the recently acquired Louisiana Region
since of the thought that the United States would populate the land from the
Atlantic to the Pacific Sea. Without individuals, moving and living in the
land, the United States would not fulfill its destiny.The land of California
was another financial motivating force that justified Manifest Destiny and the
development westward.

California
held financial preferences such as abundant 
resources including mineral, rural, commercial and manufacturing and a
good vantage point to exchange with nations bordering the Pacific Ocean. In
President Polk’s State of the Union Address in 1847, he defended the right of
the United States to procure California by saying that the Mexican government would
not be able to legitimately control the land over the distance  in between.

Besides,
in case the United States would give up control over it, a European power would
attempt to claim it by either force or purchase.

Manifest
Destiny was the thought that the United States was entitled to all of the North
American land. Pro-expansionists utilized this thought to take over land either
by purchase or by war. The thought of privilege fueled westward expansion and
there were laws made to accomplish control over all of the land..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORK CITIED

Julius W. Pratt, “The Origin of ‘Manifest
Destiny’,” The American Historical Review (July
1927).

Kathy
Weiser. “The Homestead Act – Creating Prosperity in America” Retrieved
from    legendsofamerica.com ,     https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ah-homestead/ Accessed Web. May, 2017

Littell,
McDougal. The Americans. New York: Holt MCDOUGAL,2012. Print.

The
Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center. “A Brief History of the Tail of
Tears.” Cherokee Nation. Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.org ,  http://www.cherokee.org/About-The-Nation/History/Trail-of-Tears/24496/Information Accessed Web. 26 Mar, 2012