Over seventy percent of earth is covered by water, as the population of earth grow, people put high pressure on water resources. Probably, rivers, ponds, oceons and other water bodies are being compressed by human activities, poorer water quality means water pollution. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. This pollution happens when pollutants are released or dismissed into water bodies, without enough treatment to remove harmful compounds. It affects the whole biosphere of animals and plants that live in or might be exposed to water. Sources of water pollution can be: heavy metal, combustion, toxic waste disposal at sea, pesticides, flooding during rainy season which carries waste deposits into our waters, sewage leakages and high population density. Effects of water pollution are, death of aquatic animals; the main problem caused by water pollution is that it causes the death of organisms that live in water, like crabs, seagulls, birds, dead fishes and many other organisms that frequently wind up on beaches, destroyed by pollutants in their enviroment. Disturbance of food chain; pollution disturb the food chain. Pollutants such as lead are eaten by small animals. Then, these animals are consumed by fish, and the food chain continues to disrupt at high levels and pollutants are spreading in all organisms. Diseases; in the end, humans are affected by this action as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating any poisoned seafood. And in some poor nations, people can easily get poisoned by drinking water from lakes and rivers. We can help our environment by stopping water pollution in many ways. First, never throw garbage in ocean, while you are on the beach, never throw your garbage in the water nor leave it their, take everything when you are going. Second, use water in a wise way, don’t keep tap running while you are not using it. Don’t throw chemicals or oil in sink and toilet.
How do we know when water is polluted?
Some forms of water pollution are very recognizeable, everyone has seen TV news movie of oil slicks filmed from helicopters flying overhead. Water pollution is usually less evident and much harder to notice than this. But how can we calculate water pollution when we cannot see it? how do we even know it’s there? There are two main ways of calculating the quality of water. One is to take parts of the water and calculate the combination of different chemicals that it contains. If the chemicals are dangerous or the concentrations are very high, we can indicate that the water is polluted. Calculations like this are known as chemical indicators of water quality. Another way to measure water quality contains examining the fish, insects, and other invertebrates that the water will assist. If many different types of living things can live in a river, the quality is doubtlessly great; if the river assist or support no fish life at all, the quality is clearly much weaker. Measurements like this are called biological indicators of water quality.
When we think of ocean pollution, large oil often bounce to mind, yet these striking hazards represent only a small part of all the pollution invading the oceans. Even considering oil by itself, tanker spills are not as compelling as they might seem, only 12 percent of the oil that enters the oceans comes from tanker hazards; over 70 percent of oil pollution at sea comes from routine shipping and from the oil people spill down drains on land. However, what makes tanker spills so devastating is the sheer quantity of oil they discharge at once; in other words, the concentration of oil they assemble in one very localized part of the aquatic environment. The biggest oil spill in recent years, appeared when the tanker Exxon Valdez broke up in Prince William Sound in Alaska in 1989. Around 12 million gallons (44 million liters) of oil were liberated into the pristine wilderness; enough to fill your living room 800 times over! Estimates of the aquatic animals killed in the spill alter from approximately 1000 sea otters and 34,000 birds to as many as 2800 sea otters and 250,000 sea birds. Several billion salmon and herring eggs are also believed to have been destroyed.