PACS was created in 1972, and the objective of it was to
discuss the radiologist where they meet, which is then developed over the
years. It has been used for a long time, mainly by the health systems. It is
linked with the radiology department. In later a long time,
PACS innovations have begun to consolidate pictures delivered by
other departments, such as cardiology, pathology, oncology and dermatology.
Later, PACS also provided sharing the images within and outside the health
systems and the clinics. Now the popularity of PACS is very expanding by using
it in the diagnosis, but it is very expensive and need specialty.
PACS include ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR), Nuclear Medicine imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), endoscopy (ES), mammograms
(MG), digital radiography (DR). (1)(2)
PACS, or picture archiving and
communication system, is a medical imaging technology used for storing,
retrieving, presenting and sharing images produced by various medical hardware
modalities, such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI and ultrasound machines.(1)
Uses of PACS
To replace the hard copy,
instead of keeping hard copies of medical
images , saving them in digital soft copy in a large quantity and retrieving
them at any time.
1- Accessibility on
a far distant allows the clinician or a worker at any place to access the same
images at the same time. Example, distant education and telediagnosis.
electronic integration with other medical framework such as Hospital
Information System and Electronic Medical Record.
is utilized by radiology faculty to oversee the
workflow of understanding patient exams.
4- Some types of images
1- Ultrasound (US), or ultrasonography ,it is a
procedure where the ultrasound is used for diagnosis of specific diseases or
tissues. It is used to the inside body issues such as muscles, tendons, vessels
and some internal organs. The goal of it is to roll out pathological condition , and it is safe in
Resonance Imaging (MRI), it is an imaging technology where the strong magnetic
waves is used to look at the normal anatomical an the physiology of the
diseased and healthy body. It is X-ray independent.(3)
3- CT scan, computed tomography scan , it I X-ray dependent used by
taken many x-ray scans from different areas in the body in a very short period
of time which enable the practitioner to see the inside without surgery.
Another name of it is CAT Scan (4)
4- Mammography , it is a use of
low density X-ray for diagnosis and detecting breast tumor by seeing the
deposition of the calcifications.(5)
5- Image archival and backup
The images that are saved as in a soft copy on PACS are easily
retrieved. The main aim in using PACS is to make the diagnostic imaging is
automatically and easily accessed and available at any time when it needed. To
make that happen in the whole hospital or health system, there should be an
integration and connections of all departments with PACS within the same
In case of disaster or a situations where the imaging data is lost,
there should be an extra copies of the imaging data which are kept in some places.
Images can be saved far from the local place in a hard drives such as discs for
backup retrieval (6)
Advantages and disadvantages of PACS
Permit the practitioner to see the image, enlarge it as it needed, see
it from different angels for more accurate analysis.
Minimize the number of copies of the images as they are available
electronically, more improvement of data management.
Easily accessibility and retrieval of the data and within a short time
at any place, where also can be shared with far systems in which can improve
the patient care.
Safe storage of the images with a backup copies.
Comparison with the old picture is easy
Availability all the time
Images could be shared with a remote distance for education,
PACS instrument and equipment are costly
The practitioners or doctors need a o be trained to use it
Need of huge hardware for saving the data
If there is a problem occurs with PACS, the retrieval of the images is
not possible.( 8)
In summary, PACS is very essential in the health systems or the
hospitals for the diagnostic purpose. In fact, it is one of the most important
parts of the hospital that must be present despite its cost and the requirement
of the training. Due to fast retrieving of data, saving time, and seeing the
image from different angels, PACS can improve the overall health care.
There are some health care centers which still do not use PACS due to
their own reasons like the cost of it or due to the present situations, I
strongly recommend and suggest using PACS or planning to uses it in the near
future if the problem is about the fund .Because, the main benefit of it is to
improve the patient care and it does. So, take the cost and the training
requirement as a challenge that should be solved in the near future if