Robert was the first credited film creator to edit film. Compared to how a film reel is edited today, with digital programming like AVID, in the late 1800’s it was edited very simply with just scissors and glue. In 1998 Robert Paul edited a short film called called “Come Along, Do!” It was a short one minute comedy but only 38 seconds survive today of the film. This is one of the worst factors of editing on physical film compared to digital editing. The actual film can be easily damaged and thus makes it unusable. The short film created by Robert Paul was two different scenes edited together. This is a very simple editing technique now but this was a huge step forward for the way of editing.GEORGE ALBERT SMITH – SHOWING A CHARACTER’S PERSPECTIVE, Intercut shots George Albert Smith was the next key person in the development of editing. He editing a short film called “Seen Through a Telescope” where the film consisted of one scene just cut between different characters. This is seen as such a basic editing method in today’s eyes but this changed the way films were edited forever. The film was only a minute long and had three shots but it was a step forward for filmmakers and the audience. Michael Brooke on Screen Online said “Although the editing is unsophisticated, the film does at least show a very early example of how to make use of point-of-view close-ups in the context of a coherent narrative.” Brooke, NDJAMES WILLIAMSON – REVERSE SHOT, SAME SHOT MULTIPLE ANGLES, DIFFERENT TYPES OF SHOTSJames Williamson was a director and cinematography who moved the ways of filmmaking forward. One of his most famous short films was “Attack on a China Mission” which features a reverse shot,which helps shows a certain scene from different angles. This was the first ever reverse shot used and moved forward the ways of editing scenes. Williamson also grew on Smith’s idea of showing a perspective from different angles. In the short film it showed a soldier moving towards something and then the film suddenly cuts to him walking towards the camera. It made it far more interesting for audiences to view and was a groundbreaking ability that helped shape filmmaking. Williamson also began to explore different types of shots he could use. The long shot was a standard shot that all filmmakers used as it showed the characters from head to toe and the environment around them. But he started to develop different shots, like a close up. This shot helped further show characters expressions and made it more interesting for the audience to view. In another of Williamson’s famous films “The Big Swallow” he further experimented with cinematography by creating a camera trick. Through editing and the camera’s perspective (which is also the audience’s perspective) makes it looks like the character on screen swallows the camera. Nothing like this had been tried before and was a big breakthrough for cinematography and editing. During this time William and Smith further improved the ways of filmmaking with their ideas and tricks on camera angles, shots and how to splice shots together in editing.EDWIN PORTER – DIFFERENT LOCATIONS “THE GREAT TRAIN ROBBERY” – Continuity editing, camera panningEdwin Porter was a huge part in developing continuity editing and how to pace a film. In a film called “Life of an American Fireman” which was made in 1903. One shot had a a group of fireman going down a pole and then it cuts to the bottom of the pole. It takes way too long for them to reach the bottom and editing like this wouldn’t be accepted today. This is where continuity editing started to further improve when Porter made “The Great Train Robbery” in the same year.