ROTATOR deep. The tear might also occur

ROTATOR CUFF TEAR

Type of manuscript: A review

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Running title : Rotator cuff tear 

Revathi.B
Undergraduate student

Saveetha Dental College, 
Saveetha university 

Dr.K.Yuvraj Babu

Department of anatomy
Saveetha Dental College 
Saveetha university 
Chennai 
Tamil Nadu  
India 

Corresponding author

Student Email: [email protected]

Contact number : 9176789720

Author name : Revathi.B

Guide name :  Dr.K.Yuvraj Babu

Year of study : l-BDS :2017-2018

ABSTRACT:

INTRODUCTION:
Rotator cuff is a common shoulder type of muscle. It is called rotator cuff because the function is actually on the basis of rotator motion. Rotator cuff tear is something different. It is the common shoulder tear. Pain is the most common symptom of rotator cuff tear. The frequency of pain varies from person to person. The pain also depends upon the type of tear and thickness of the tear. The prevalence is increasing in old age people. The pain is depending upon the patient’s sustaining power. Most of the patients with tear come to hospital because of the causation of pain.

Rotator cuff tear has a wide variety among society. It may be happen due to several reasons . One of the common aetiology is tendon degeneration which is more prominent in old patients and other may be due to repetitive movement of the shoulder in the same direction or a very rapid movement of shoulder in any of the other direction. Rotator cuff tear is usually a dysfunction of tendon. The pain gradually increase and if left untreated it becomes more intense and deep. The tear might also occur due to traumatic reasons like while met with accident etc. 

Treating methods has also became advanced. In the initial cases physiotherapy, stretching therapies and cold compress are some treatments. Traumatic is a significant one while the degenerative one is more frequent and has high prevalence. In severe cases usually shoulder surgeries are recommended. The type of surgery varies according to the size of tear. Surgeries are mostly recommended if there is no improvement is seen by giving primary relief treatment.

ANATOMY:
It involves the functioning of four muscles. They are: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major and subscapularis. Each of a which have their own functioning. There is a presence of bursa which is represented as lubricating sac. It involves in the gliding and movement in between the bone and rotator cuff muscle.  

The main bones involving in the rotator cuff is upper arm bone , shoulder bone and collar bone . It is actually a ball and socket bone. The head of the upper arm bone inserts into the humerus . Around the head of humerus , the rotator cuff unites the above mentioned four muscles forming tendons. All these muscles arises from the scapula and inserts into the humerus. The subscapularis muscle guides the internal movement of humerus. From the view of superior insertion of  rotator cuff a rotator cable is seen . The rotator cable arises anteriorly from the biceps. It is the thickening of capsule. The supraspinatus has its origin from the supraspinatus fossa and inserts into the greater tubercle of humerus. The infraspinatus also has its origin from infraspinatus fossa and inserts into the tubercle as well. It is the fourth muscle of the rotator cuff. 

The rotator cuff tear has five histologic layers. The 1st layer contains superficial ligament. The 2nd and 3rd layer contains tendinous fibres. And the 4th and 5th layer consists of blood vessels and loose connective tissues.

TEAR TYPES:

There are many types of rotator cuff tear. Prominent ones are partial thickness tear and full thickness tear. The first type rarely requires surgery while second one was quite complicated in which the shoulder surgery or replacement is needed. The tear can either be acute or degenerative.