Table microbiology of water. Recently, the drinking

Table of Contents

 

Abstract 1

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Introduction. 1

Methodology. 2

Results and
discussion. 2

District
Central 2

District
Korangi 3

Conclusion
and recommendation. 4

References. 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Water
quality is considered a significant problem particularly in developing
countries which are consequences of solid waste and waste water disposal in
water bodies without any proper treatment for microbiology of water. Recently,
the drinking water quality of Pakistan is in poor conditions that possess a
great health risk to the consumer. For water disinfection chlorination is the
most effective method and most widely used in all over the world for treatment
of water. It aids to lower down the bacterial count in water use for drinking
as well as domestic purposes. This study reveals the fecal count of drinking
water of central and Korangi district. The parameters for identifying are pH,
total aerobic count (TAC), total coliform count (TCC), total fecal count (TFC)
and total fecal. It is then concluded
that drinking water quality of Korangi is not fit for use and human
consumption. All the samples contain high level of microbial count which is
potential source of water borne diseases. However, water quality of district
central is comparatively in good condition as it is less polluted from organic
matter and microorganisms.

Introduction

Water
quality is considered a significant problem particularly in developing
countries which are consequences of solid waste and waste water disposal in
water bodies without any proper treatment for microbiology of water. Day by
day, this issue is raising its importance as the quantity of water become
scarce and rapidly depletion of water reservoir take place on an alarming rate.
One of the major cause for water pollution is the industrialization(1). In Pakistan, according to, almost
40% of the deaths and diseases are due to water quality.

Including
industrialization, urbanization, deforestation and rapid population brought a
great stress to the water resource in Pakistan (4). Recently, the drinking water quality of Pakistan is in poor
condition that possess a great health risk to the consumer especially to the
children under the age of five years and to the old age people(2). Due to pathogen presence in
drinking water it leads to water borne diseases including typhoid, chlorella,
dysentery, diarrhea etc.

For
water disinfection chlorination is the most effective method and most widely
used in all over the world for treatment of water. It aids to lower down the
bacterial count in water use for drinking as well as domestic purposes(3). The release of toxic and hazardous
substances from industries and improperly drainage mechanism from the
residential are the root cause of poor water quality (9). In addition to inappropriate waste water distribution, lack of
disinfection at water supply distribution and due to less attention pay to the
water quality monitoring at treatment plants, the quality of drinking water is
reached to its limit(6).
Water supply bodies that are naturally found are streams and river, are mostly contaminated with industrial
as well as domestic waste water, as these are the major bodies in which all the
community drained their waste water without ant treatment (10). Due to the presence of microbial load in drinking water and
absence of proper sanitation practices a large proportion of developing
countries suffered from water borne diseases. As per study, an
estimated number of people which include mostly children died due to poor water
quality (11). And rapid increasing in human population is
also an important factor for poor water quality management. According to world
health organization (WHO) recommendations, potable water should have less than
20cfu/ml of hetertrophic bacteria with the absence of coliform bacteria (12). Several of the
literature is present showing high amount of microbial load present in drinking
water of Pakistan. Water borne diseases persist in Pakistanis mainly due
to contamination of drinking water mostly with municipal sewage and industrial
waste (13).
The quality of drinking water is associated by its physical, chemical and
microbiological conditions(14).It is estimated that, in Pakistan, 30% of all diseases and 40% of all deaths are caused by unhealthy
quality of water (15). Health
of human is being adversely tormented
by numerous agents
like pathogens, bacterium that are present in unsafe water. a major pro- portion of population in developing countries
is stricken by health-related problems attributable to unsafe water and microorganism contamination
(16).

In
Karachi city, the condition is same as in all Pakistan as it is the city with
most of the industrialization, urbanization and population growth. There is
maintenance of water quality of potable water as well for waste water drainage
process(5). There is no proper
identification of point sources for contamination of water for bacterial count.
This study reveals the fecal count of drinking water of central and Korangi
district.

Methodology

The
study covers the parameters to determine the bacterial count of drinking water
of district central and district Korangi. The samples were taken from Central
district includes total 39 union councils (UC) and Korangi district include 22
UC. The fecal quality of drinking water has been assessed in the study. The
parameters for identifying are pH, total aerobic count (TAC), total coliform
count (TCC), total fecal count (TFC) and total fecals. These counts are
important to determine to monitor the fecal contamination in drinking water.

Results and discussion

District Central

S.No

 Area

pH

TAC

TCC

TFC

TFS

1

Azizabad
Uc-01

7.3

2400

2400

1100

11

 

2

Karimabad
Uc-02

7.1

2400

1100

460

23

 

3

Aisha
Manzil Uc-03

7.1

2400

2400

240

11

 

4

Ancholi
Uc-04

7.2

2400

2400

1100

9

 

5

Nasirabad
Uc-05

7.0

2400

460

120

3

 

6

Yaseenabad
Uc-06

7.1

2400

1100

460

3

 

7

Water
Pump Uc-07

7.3

2400

2400

460

15

 

8

Shafeeque
Mill Colony Uc-08

7.4

2400

2400

1100

64

 

9

Rizvia
Society Uc-01

7.5

2400

2400

1100

120

 

10

Firdos
Colony Uc-02

7.4

2400

2400

2400

210

 

14

Bandhani
Colony Uc-06

7.1

2400

2400

2400

460

 

15

Sharifabad
Uc-07

7.1

2400

1100

460

9

 

16

Commercial
Area Uc-08

7.6

2400

1100

240

20

 

17

Mujahid
Colony Uc-09

7.4

2400

2400

1100

20

 

18

Nazimabad
No.01 Uc-10

7.2

2400

1100

240

9

 

19

Abbasi
Shaheed Uc-11

7.5

2400

1100

240

3

 

20

Kalyana
Uc-01

7.4

2400

1100

460

9

 

21

Sir
Syed Uc-02

7.4

2400

1100

120

28

 

22

Fatima
Jinnah Colony Uc-03

7.1

2400

 2400

1100

75

 

23

Godhra
Uc-04

7

2400

2400

1100

28

 

24

Abu
ZarGhaffari Uc-05

7.2

2400

2400

1100

28

 

25

Hakeem
Ahsan Uc-06

7.4

2400

1100

120

75

 

26

Madina
Colony Uc-07

7.6

2400

1100

460

64

 

27

Faisal
Uc-08

7.2

2400

2400

1100

9

 

28

Mustufa
Colony Uc-10

7.1

2400

2400

1100

9

 

29

Khawaja
AjmeerNagri Uc-11

7.1

2400

2400

1100

28

 

30

Paposh
Nagar Uc-01

7.2

2400

2400

1100

460

 

31

Pahar
Ganj Uc-02

7.3

2400

2400

1100

75

 

32

Khando
Goth Uc-03

7.1

2400

 240

 93

 11

 

33

Haidery
Uc-04

7.1

460

43

0

0

 

34

Sakhi
Hasan Uc-05

7.3

240

9

0

0

 

35

Farooq-e-Azam
Uc-06

7.1

240

7

0

0

 

36

Nusrat
Bhutto Colony Uc-07

7.2

2400

1100

1100

240

 

37

Shadman
Town Uc-08

7

240

15

0

0

 

38

Buffer
Zone Uc-09

7

240

120

9

0

 

39

Buffer
zone-1 Uc-10

7.2

460

120

14

3

 

 

District
Korangi

S.No

 Area

pH

TAC

TCC

TFC

TFS

1

 Bilal
Colony Uc-01

7.1

2400

2400

1100

120

2

 Nasir
Colony Uc-02

7.2

2400

 2400

 1100

 460

3

 Chakra
Goth Uc-03

7.3

2400

2400

2400

150

4

 Mustafa
Taj Colony Uc-04

7.1

2400

2400

1100

120

5

 100
Quarters Uc-05

7.2

2400

 2400

 1100

 240

6

 Gulzar
Colony Uc-06

7.3

2400

2400

1100

460

7

 Korangi
Sector 33 Uc-07

7.4

2400

2400

1100

460

8

 Zaman
Town Uc-08

7.0

2400

1100

 460

9

9

 Muzaffarabad
Colony Uc-01

7.1

2400

2400

2400

460

10

 Muslimabad
Uc-02

7.2

2400

2400

2400

210

11

 Daud
Colony Uc-03

7.3

2400

2400

2400

240

12

 Moinabad
Uc-04

7.1

2400

1100

 460

75

13

 Khawaja
Ajmer Nagri Uc-07

7.4

2400

2400

1100

64

14

 Landhi
Uc-O8

7.4

2400

2400

2400

460

15

 Awami
Colony Uc-09

7.3

2400

2400

 1100

460

16

 Korangi
Uc-11

7.2

2400

1100

 460

20

17

 Natha
Khan Goth Uc-01

7.1

2400

 1100

 460

 93

18

 Pak
Sadat Colony Uc-02

7.1

2400

 460

240

3

19

 Drigue
Colony Uc-03

7

2400

 9

 0

0

20

 Shah faisal colony  Uc-04

7.4

2400

1100

460

3

21

 RifahAam
Uc-06

7.1

 1100

 9

0

0

22

 Al
Falah Society Uc-07

7.1

 460

 7

 0

 0

 

The
study reveals that the Ph of water is neutral that ranges from 7.0 to 7.6. The
ph at 7.6 is of drinking water of madina colony UC-07 in district central. Most
of the drinking water samples are at ph7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4. Total aerobic
count (TAC) is an important parameter for qualitative analysis of aerobic
bacteria present in drinking water. It
shows the presence of organic matter in drinking water as the aerobic count
decrease due to high organic load. Most of drinking water sample consist of
2400 mg/l of the aerobic bacteria which is considered to exceeding the limit of
microbial quality of water. Shadman town, buffer zone and Farooq e azam, are
having 240 TAC that is showing better quality of water. Farooq e azam and
Alfalah society having lowest coliform count that reveals the quality of
drinking water is good. While other samples shown the exceeding level of
coliform count which is an indicator of environmental pollution. Total fecal
count is an important parameter to identify the qualitative presence of fecal polluted
water. Sample of Drig road, Rifahaam and Al falah society, Hyderi, Sakhihasan,
Shadman, Farooq e Azam are safe from fecal count having zero number of fecal
counts. Chakra goth, Muzaffarabad colony, Muslimabad, Dauad colony and Landhi
having highest limit of fecal count i.e 2400 in each sample. Each sample for
TFS is under the permissible limit. Overall the drinking water quality of
Korangi district is unsafe for drinking as it contains exceeding limit of
microbial count. Whereas samples of district central are relatively safe as it
possesses less number of microbes in drinking water.

Conclusion and recommendation

It is then concluded that drinking water quality of
Korangi is not fit for use and human consumption. All the samples contain high
level of microbial count which is potential source of water borne diseases.
However, water quality of district central is comparatively in good condition
as it is less polluted from organic matter and microorganisms (4). It is highly recommended that
filtration and chlorination to the drinking water before the supply should be
made necessary. Water quality monitoring should be regulated on monthly basis frequently.
Identification of point sources for contamination should be monitored(8). Proper treatment of wastewater and
its drainage is necessary to prevent from contamination of
drinking water. The preventive measures should be taken by the regulative authorities so as to produce town,
a healthful condition
of their basic requirements.

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