Transformation the city landscape of Delhi. But

Transformation of Built Environment
in Urban Villages. Case Study – Urban Villages, Delhi

Dr.
Ruchita Gupta

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Assistant
Professor, SPA Delhi

Abstract

Under
the influence of rapid urbanization and economic development, many Indian
cities have doubled or tippled in terms of population and land use. As a
result, many villages, abaadi area and settlement are situated in periphery of
City and Town are engulfed, and named as Urban Villages and Urban Villages Ext.
Similarly, Lal Dora area within the city is also comes under urban villages.
Primary factors for urbanization is to get employment and better living
condition as compare to rural area. If we compare last fifty years population
growth of Delhi, Urban village are accommodating major population of Delhi as
compare to urban area. As per census of India (1961 and 2011) population of
urban villages increase 6.8% to 68% while the area of urban villages decreases
900 sqm to 557 sqm. So, we can see density of urban villages are swiftly
growing. There are many influences for this growth but migration of people from
rural area and revenue from rent are major factors. Simultaneously Built
Environment is also growing at very speedily. This paper is an attempt to understands
transformation of built environment of urban villages in Delhi.

Introduction

The
unprecedented growth of Delhi has resulted at the expense of the vast
agricultural land of Delhi. In this process, the villages lost their identity,
space & value as they become dependent on Urban Areas. Their presence
seemed to be lost in the city landscape of Delhi. But besides all that they are
having a very large amount of land within urban area. As per Delhi Master Plan
2021, Delhi currently having 135 urban villages which are having 38% (approx..)
area of Delhi which are accommodating more than 70 % and that population is
increasing rapidly (Census 2011). This speedily increase population in this
area due to the affordable housing for each monetary sector. As a result, major
changes in built environment, housing are getting dense, low rise to high rise
development. And ultimately density of people is increasing day by day. There
are many influences for this growth like personal growth of family, accommodation
for migrating people, providing small industries & other. These are conceptual
sketches for transformation of built environment. Earlier people are used to
use this space for living only but with the years it transform in to gym,
shops, industries, parking, commercial, stocking and etc. 

Year 2005

Year 2015
and further

 

Influences
for Physical Transformation of Urban Village

Earlier
people used to make single floor structure as its was sufficient to their needs
for residing their own family and a small shops or business. Very few structure
were going till first floor, but with migrating of people and aspirations of
people it changes. Following are major influences for this transformations in
built environment and growth in vacant land within periphery.

Land use

Primarily
the land use in these areas (Urban Villages) were residential only. These were
rural villages but they also keep their cattle, accumulations of grains and
small household industries at very basic and individual levels. These were the scenario
at the before these villages comes under the Urban Villages. With the
urbanization happened all these villages comes under the mix land use as there
were no fix land use (even the residential were dominating). As, a result small
industries, commercial place can be made here which needs enough structure to
accommodate. Simultaneously the infrastructure also developed for supporting these
types of land use. 

Growth &
Aspirations of Native People

With the
urbanization and modernization of city, habits of people are changing
especially routine works. So, they are demanding and constructing more space
for their works which are earlier shared. As, a result more construction take
place to full fill people aspirations. Besides that, the sizes of family are
increasing with time so they also need to accommodate their family &
relatives. In these place, combined family used to leave but with modernization
these are replaced by nuclear family with modern thoughts. Ultimately more
houses and more building are constructed.

Migration
of Rural People

Biggest
consequence of rapid transition of urbanization is migrated population,
affordable housing and employment for uneducated and non-skilled people. First
people need housing within their budget, as compare to urban area urban villages
are providing much cheaper housing. In the end, more construction is taking
place to accommodating migrating people. Now people of Urban villages are
rental money is easy source of income as they have their own land, as much they
can build their income will increase because people are moving in urban village
very swiftly.

Intervention
of Developer and Local Contractor

Density
of urban villages are getting higher day by day, owner also want earn money as
much as they can. But Initially they don’t have money to develop or construct
structure for accommodating maximum no of people. Developer come and ask to
build 4 to 5 floor level where 2 floors are taken by builder for sale purpose
and their profit and rest are owned by native owner. In main spine or major
axis road builder converting lower area into commercial zone and upper floors
comes for residential purpose. As a result, with the intervention of builder
and local developer, the construction phase immediately rises.

Due to
all the factors, new structure and building are constructing very reckless
speed in now days. We can also define money (rental revenue) is key factors for
this built transformation.

Physical Transformation
of Built Environment in Urban Village

There
are 4 to 5 stages for transformation of the built environment in urban
villages. From very beginning as shown in stage 1, only ground floor structure
is constructed as density of people were low. Tennent also accommodates within
the same floors. Basic Typology of buildings are courtyard planned structure
even the people were using this for other purpose also like accumulation of grains,
small household industries, daily routine shops too. But with increase of
population (self-growth and migrating people) and change in land use give the
opportunity to construct more structure, dwelling units. This was easy approach
to earn money and sustain their life. So, people develop their house for
accommodate more people and for generating revenue for them self. Now people
are constructing Ground floor and first floor. Even now people use to cover 3
to 4 feet area of street at first floor level (encroachment at upper level).
Built up area is changing from open courtyard to full covered plot areas. This
is stage where construction of structure taking place by covering the full
ground covrage.

 

 

 

Stage – 1

`

Stage – 2

But in
last 10 to 15 years people constructing floor system or apartment system, (Stage
3) where a single floor having complete facilities as they also able to give
attractive rent. Now people creating floor system. Like in apartments or
high-rise housing schemes, people construct floors and then rented out. As a
result, no. of dwelling units and ultimately no. of user are increasing on same
land. Simultaneously the social character is also changing rapidly. Earlier
people comes for search jobs, mostly having their along with them. But now days
single persons who is doing job, students, family, single girls, and family all
types of social groups come. They need their different types of culture,
habits, routine of work and specially their private spaces. But 3 to 4 or
maximum 5 dwelling units can sustain in that floor system typology of
construction. And besides that, as many individual units are constructed so
they will generate more revenue generate. So Now days people move to build
studio apartments having one big room, kitchen and toilet as one Dwelling units
and developing 2 to 3 units on single floor as per area they have, (Stage – 4)
besides they are going min. 5 floors. So ultimately only the money is primarily
factor to creating this type of construction. In this transformation profit is
maximizing but with compromising of quality of living.

 

Stage – 3

 

Stage – 4

 

 

Source – Author, 29 May 2017
Maujpur & Ghonda Delhi

We can summaries how the
development or transformation are taking in these places which is directly
based on rental income.

S.No.

Stages

Area
(sq.ft.)

Area
(sq.m.)

Built
Up (sq.ft.)

Dwelling
Units

People

Rental
Income(Rs)

1

Stage-
1

900

84

400
to 600

1

4
to 6

800
to 1200

2

Stage-
2

900

84

900to
1200

2
to 3

6
to 10

2000
to 3000

3

Stage-
3

900

84

1200
to 1800

3
to 4

10
to 20

6000
to 10000

4

Stage-
4

900

84

1800
to 3600

5
to 6

20
to 30

10000
to 15000

5

Stage-
5

900

84

4500
and above

10
and above

40
and above

35000
and above

Maximum
no. of plots is having area 900 sq.ft. and in local language known as 100 Gaj

Source – Author, Case study
Maujpur& Ghonda Urban Village Delhi

 

Source – Author, Case study
Maujpur& Ghonda Urban Village Delhi

 

Conclusion

Native
People of Urban Villages are increasing densities in respective zones by
providing affordable housing. Along with this, they are changing the initial
character the urban villages by introducing high-rise and dense development.
All this transformation due to get maximum rental money and accommodating
maximum no. of people. As a result, quality of living is decreasing as the
construction of built environment increase. Because over all infrastructure in
terms of accessibility within villages are same, as there is no land are
available for new roads and street. Similarly, Electricity, Water Supply,
Drainage System and other supporting services are not increasing as the
population. I am concluding the entire or maximum change in built environment
in urban villages due to personal profit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1.)  Master Plan Delhi 1962.

2.)  Master Plan Delhi 2001

3.)  Master Plan Delhi 2021

4.)  U V Cell, DDA, Project Report, Urban
Villages-Delhi 1980-85, City Planning Wing,1985

5.)  Dissertation, Extrovertness of Urban village in Delhi

NALANDA das gupta, tvb shs, 2005

6.)  Dissertation, CHANGING ROLE OF URBAN VILLAGES  

BHINI JAIN, Sushant School of Architecture, 2001

7.)  Dissertation, URBAN VILLAGES VITAL
CONSTITUENTS

OF URBAN DELHI, MAYANK SHARMA, Sushant School of Architecture, 1996

8.)  Case study of Chirag Delhi, ARCHNA GUPTA, TVB
SHS, 1994

9.)  Case study of Kishangarh, DILIP SINGH
KUSHWAHA, TVB SHS 2006

10.)      Dissertation, Exploring the role of urban
villages in Delhi, DILIP SINGH KUSHWAHA, USAP 2008

11.)      Architectural Thesis, Revitalization of Urban
Villages, Maujpur & Ghonda, DILIP SINGH KUSHWAHA, USAP 2009

12.)      Journal, Rupa Datta, Territorial Integration
of Urbanising Villages 2004

13.)      Dr.Tapash Biswas, Structural Transformation of
the Villages in Delhi Metropolitan Region, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 2015

 

 Transformation of Built Environment
in Urban Villages. Case Study – Urban Villages, Delhi

Dr.
Ruchita Gupta

Assistant
Professor, SPA Delhi

Abstract

Under
the influence of rapid urbanization and economic development, many Indian
cities have doubled or tippled in terms of population and land use. As a
result, many villages, abaadi area and settlement are situated in periphery of
City and Town are engulfed, and named as Urban Villages and Urban Villages Ext.
Similarly, Lal Dora area within the city is also comes under urban villages.
Primary factors for urbanization is to get employment and better living
condition as compare to rural area. If we compare last fifty years population
growth of Delhi, Urban village are accommodating major population of Delhi as
compare to urban area. As per census of India (1961 and 2011) population of
urban villages increase 6.8% to 68% while the area of urban villages decreases
900 sqm to 557 sqm. So, we can see density of urban villages are swiftly
growing. There are many influences for this growth but migration of people from
rural area and revenue from rent are major factors. Simultaneously Built
Environment is also growing at very speedily. This paper is an attempt to understands
transformation of built environment of urban villages in Delhi.

Introduction

The
unprecedented growth of Delhi has resulted at the expense of the vast
agricultural land of Delhi. In this process, the villages lost their identity,
space & value as they become dependent on Urban Areas. Their presence
seemed to be lost in the city landscape of Delhi. But besides all that they are
having a very large amount of land within urban area. As per Delhi Master Plan
2021, Delhi currently having 135 urban villages which are having 38% (approx..)
area of Delhi which are accommodating more than 70 % and that population is
increasing rapidly (Census 2011). This speedily increase population in this
area due to the affordable housing for each monetary sector. As a result, major
changes in built environment, housing are getting dense, low rise to high rise
development. And ultimately density of people is increasing day by day. There
are many influences for this growth like personal growth of family, accommodation
for migrating people, providing small industries & other. These are conceptual
sketches for transformation of built environment. Earlier people are used to
use this space for living only but with the years it transform in to gym,
shops, industries, parking, commercial, stocking and etc. 

Year 2005

Year 2015
and further

 

Influences
for Physical Transformation of Urban Village

Earlier
people used to make single floor structure as its was sufficient to their needs
for residing their own family and a small shops or business. Very few structure
were going till first floor, but with migrating of people and aspirations of
people it changes. Following are major influences for this transformations in
built environment and growth in vacant land within periphery.

Land use

Primarily
the land use in these areas (Urban Villages) were residential only. These were
rural villages but they also keep their cattle, accumulations of grains and
small household industries at very basic and individual levels. These were the scenario
at the before these villages comes under the Urban Villages. With the
urbanization happened all these villages comes under the mix land use as there
were no fix land use (even the residential were dominating). As, a result small
industries, commercial place can be made here which needs enough structure to
accommodate. Simultaneously the infrastructure also developed for supporting these
types of land use. 

Growth &
Aspirations of Native People

With the
urbanization and modernization of city, habits of people are changing
especially routine works. So, they are demanding and constructing more space
for their works which are earlier shared. As, a result more construction take
place to full fill people aspirations. Besides that, the sizes of family are
increasing with time so they also need to accommodate their family &
relatives. In these place, combined family used to leave but with modernization
these are replaced by nuclear family with modern thoughts. Ultimately more
houses and more building are constructed.

Migration
of Rural People

Biggest
consequence of rapid transition of urbanization is migrated population,
affordable housing and employment for uneducated and non-skilled people. First
people need housing within their budget, as compare to urban area urban villages
are providing much cheaper housing. In the end, more construction is taking
place to accommodating migrating people. Now people of Urban villages are
rental money is easy source of income as they have their own land, as much they
can build their income will increase because people are moving in urban village
very swiftly.

Intervention
of Developer and Local Contractor

Density
of urban villages are getting higher day by day, owner also want earn money as
much as they can. But Initially they don’t have money to develop or construct
structure for accommodating maximum no of people. Developer come and ask to
build 4 to 5 floor level where 2 floors are taken by builder for sale purpose
and their profit and rest are owned by native owner. In main spine or major
axis road builder converting lower area into commercial zone and upper floors
comes for residential purpose. As a result, with the intervention of builder
and local developer, the construction phase immediately rises.

Due to
all the factors, new structure and building are constructing very reckless
speed in now days. We can also define money (rental revenue) is key factors for
this built transformation.

Physical Transformation
of Built Environment in Urban Village

There
are 4 to 5 stages for transformation of the built environment in urban
villages. From very beginning as shown in stage 1, only ground floor structure
is constructed as density of people were low. Tennent also accommodates within
the same floors. Basic Typology of buildings are courtyard planned structure
even the people were using this for other purpose also like accumulation of grains,
small household industries, daily routine shops too. But with increase of
population (self-growth and migrating people) and change in land use give the
opportunity to construct more structure, dwelling units. This was easy approach
to earn money and sustain their life. So, people develop their house for
accommodate more people and for generating revenue for them self. Now people
are constructing Ground floor and first floor. Even now people use to cover 3
to 4 feet area of street at first floor level (encroachment at upper level).
Built up area is changing from open courtyard to full covered plot areas. This
is stage where construction of structure taking place by covering the full
ground covrage.

 

 

 

Stage – 1

`

Stage – 2

But in
last 10 to 15 years people constructing floor system or apartment system, (Stage
3) where a single floor having complete facilities as they also able to give
attractive rent. Now people creating floor system. Like in apartments or
high-rise housing schemes, people construct floors and then rented out. As a
result, no. of dwelling units and ultimately no. of user are increasing on same
land. Simultaneously the social character is also changing rapidly. Earlier
people comes for search jobs, mostly having their along with them. But now days
single persons who is doing job, students, family, single girls, and family all
types of social groups come. They need their different types of culture,
habits, routine of work and specially their private spaces. But 3 to 4 or
maximum 5 dwelling units can sustain in that floor system typology of
construction. And besides that, as many individual units are constructed so
they will generate more revenue generate. So Now days people move to build
studio apartments having one big room, kitchen and toilet as one Dwelling units
and developing 2 to 3 units on single floor as per area they have, (Stage – 4)
besides they are going min. 5 floors. So ultimately only the money is primarily
factor to creating this type of construction. In this transformation profit is
maximizing but with compromising of quality of living.

 

Stage – 3

 

Stage – 4

 

 

Source – Author, 29 May 2017
Maujpur & Ghonda Delhi

We can summaries how the
development or transformation are taking in these places which is directly
based on rental income.

S.No.

Stages

Area
(sq.ft.)

Area
(sq.m.)

Built
Up (sq.ft.)

Dwelling
Units

People

Rental
Income(Rs)

1

Stage-
1

900

84

400
to 600

1

4
to 6

800
to 1200

2

Stage-
2

900

84

900to
1200

2
to 3

6
to 10

2000
to 3000

3

Stage-
3

900

84

1200
to 1800

3
to 4

10
to 20

6000
to 10000

4

Stage-
4

900

84

1800
to 3600

5
to 6

20
to 30

10000
to 15000

5

Stage-
5

900

84

4500
and above

10
and above

40
and above

35000
and above

Maximum
no. of plots is having area 900 sq.ft. and in local language known as 100 Gaj

Source – Author, Case study
Maujpur& Ghonda Urban Village Delhi

 

Source – Author, Case study
Maujpur& Ghonda Urban Village Delhi

 

Conclusion

Native
People of Urban Villages are increasing densities in respective zones by
providing affordable housing. Along with this, they are changing the initial
character the urban villages by introducing high-rise and dense development.
All this transformation due to get maximum rental money and accommodating
maximum no. of people. As a result, quality of living is decreasing as the
construction of built environment increase. Because over all infrastructure in
terms of accessibility within villages are same, as there is no land are
available for new roads and street. Similarly, Electricity, Water Supply,
Drainage System and other supporting services are not increasing as the
population. I am concluding the entire or maximum change in built environment
in urban villages due to personal profit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1.)  Master Plan Delhi 1962.

2.)  Master Plan Delhi 2001

3.)  Master Plan Delhi 2021

4.)  U V Cell, DDA, Project Report, Urban
Villages-Delhi 1980-85, City Planning Wing,1985

5.)  Dissertation, Extrovertness of Urban village in Delhi

NALANDA das gupta, tvb shs, 2005

6.)  Dissertation, CHANGING ROLE OF URBAN VILLAGES  

BHINI JAIN, Sushant School of Architecture, 2001

7.)  Dissertation, URBAN VILLAGES VITAL
CONSTITUENTS

OF URBAN DELHI, MAYANK SHARMA, Sushant School of Architecture, 1996

8.)  Case study of Chirag Delhi, ARCHNA GUPTA, TVB
SHS, 1994

9.)  Case study of Kishangarh, DILIP SINGH
KUSHWAHA, TVB SHS 2006

10.)      Dissertation, Exploring the role of urban
villages in Delhi, DILIP SINGH KUSHWAHA, USAP 2008

11.)      Architectural Thesis, Revitalization of Urban
Villages, Maujpur & Ghonda, DILIP SINGH KUSHWAHA, USAP 2009

12.)      Journal, Rupa Datta, Territorial Integration
of Urbanising Villages 2004

13.)      Dr.Tapash Biswas, Structural Transformation of
the Villages in Delhi Metropolitan Region, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 2015