What other programs in a computer. The

What is meant by
workstations? Define Loading the OS, Updating the System Software and
Applications and Network Configuration. 

A workstation is a computer intended for individual use that
is faster and more capable than a personal computer. It’s intended for business
or professional use (rather than home or recreational use). Workstations and
applications designed for them are used by small engineering companies,
architects, graphic designers, and any organization, department, or individual
that requires a faster microprocessor, a large amount of random access memory
(RAM), and special features such as high-speed graphics adapters. Historically,
the workstation developed technologically about the same time and for the same
audience as the UNIX operating system, which is often used as the workstation
operating system. Among the most successful makers of this kind of workstation
are Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, DEC, and IBM.

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In IBM and other corporations, the term
“workstation” is sometimes used to mean “any individual personal
computer location hooked up to a mainframe computer.” In today’s corporate
environments, many workers have such workstations. They’re simply personal
computers attached to a local area network (LAN) that in turn shares the
resources of one or more large computers. Since they are PCs, they can also be
used independently of the mainframe assuming they have their own applications
installed and their own hard disk storage. This use of the term
“workstation” (in IBM, sometimes called a “programmable
workstation”) made a distinction between the earlier “terminal”
or “display terminal” (or “dumb terminal”) of which the
3270 Information Display System is an example.

An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being
initially loaded into the computer by a boot program,
manages all the other programs in a computer. The other programs are
called applications or application programs. The application
programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services
through a defined application program interface (API).
In addition, users can interact directly with the operating system through a
user interface such as a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

An operating system performs these services for
applications:

In
a multitasking operating
system where multiple programs can be running at the same time, the
operating system determines which applications should run in what order
and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving
another application a turn.
It
manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications.
It
handles input and output to and from attached hardware devices, such as
hard disks, printers, and dial-up ports.
It
sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system
operator) about the status of operation and any errors that may have
occurred.
It can
offload the management of what are called batch jobs (for
example, printing) so that the initiating application is freed from this
work.
On
computers that can provide parallel processing, an operating system can
manage how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one
processor at a time.

Network configuration allows
a system administrator to set up a network to meet communication objectives.
The process involves the following tasks::

Router configuration: Specifies the correct IP addresses and
route settings, etc.

Host configuration: Sets up a network connection on a host
computer/laptop by logging the default network settings, such as IP addressing,
proxy, network name and ID/password, to enable network connection and
communication.

Software configuration: Any network-based software, like an
intrusion detection system (IDS), is allowed access and provided with the
appropriate credentials to monitor network traffic..

Moreover, network
configuration includes Internet/network sharing, software/application
installation and firewall installation/configuration.

To update your system software on Windows, just follow these
steps:

Click
the Windows icon in your task bar to open up the Start menu. (If you don’t
already know, this icon is in the bottom left corner of your screen.)
Click
“All Programs.”
Click,
“Windows Update.”
After
Windows Update opens, click “Check for Updates” on the top left
side of the window.
Once
Windows finishes checking for updates, click the “Install” button.
When
the updates have finished installing, restart your computer (if prompted).

Software Update (Mac) and Windows Update (Windows) will
periodically run all by themselves and ask you to update. Nonetheless, you may
not notice this or ignore it from time to time, so it’s good to check yourself
once in a while.

To update your Windows 7, 8, 8.1, and 10 Operating System:

Open
Windows Update by clicking the Start button in the lower
left corner. In the search box, type Update, and then, in the
list of results, click Windows Update.
Click Check
for updates, and then wait while Windows looks for the latest updates
for your computer.
If you
see a message telling you that important updates are available, or telling
you to review important updates, click the message to view and select the
important updates to install.
In the
list, click the important updates for more information. Select the check
boxes for any updates that you want to install, and then click OK.
Click Install
updates.

Note: It is important that you do not shut your
computer off or allow it to run out of battery during the update
process. Doing so can cause a corruption of the operating system, which can
often only be fixed by reformatting the computer. 

Question 2

Explain in detail the main
responsibilities of network administrator?

A network administrator, sometimes called a systems
administrator, is responsible for keeping an organization’s computer network up
to date and running smoothly. Any company or organization that uses multiple
computers or software platforms needs a network admin to coordinate the
different systems. (That’s a lot of job
opportunities!)

This explains the promising job outlook for network admins.
Demand for these professionals is projected to increase by up to 8 percent
through 2024, and the salary for the position ranges from $47,460 to more than
$120,000, according to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Network admins will especially be in high demand as
companies and organizations invest in newer, faster technology and mobile
networks. Growth is also expected in the healthcare industry as the use of
information technology increases.

A network admin’s job can be wide or narrow depending on the
organization and how complex its networks are. But in general, a network admin
is responsible for the following tasks:

Installing
network and computer systems
Maintaining,
repairing and upgrading network and computer systems
Diagnosing
and fixing problems or potential problems with the network and its
hardware, software and systems
Monitoring
network and systems to improve performance

As a network administrator, your tasks generally fall into
the following areas:

Designing
and planning the network
Setting
up the network
Maintaining
the network
Expanding
the network

Each task area corresponds to a phase in the continuing life
cycle of a network. You might be responsible for all the phases, or you might
ultimately specialize in a particular area, for example, network maintenance.

Designing the Network

The first phase in the life cycle of a network involves
creating its design, a task not usually performed by new network
administrators. Designing a network involves making decisions about the type of
network that best suits the needs of your organization. In larger sites this
task is performed by a senior network architect: an experienced network
administrator familiar with both network software and hardware.

Setting Up the Network

After the new network is designed, the second phase of
network administration begins, which involves setting up and configuring the
network. This consists of installing the hardware that makes up the physical
part of the network, and configuring the files or databases, hosts, routers,
and network configuration servers.

The tasks involved in this phase are a major responsibility
for network administrators. You should expect to perform these tasks unless
your organization is very large, with an adequate network structure already in
place.

Maintaining the Network

The third phase of network administration consists of
ongoing tasks that typically constitute the bulk of your responsibilities. They
might include:

Adding
new host machines to the network
Administering
network security
Administering
network services, such as NFSTM services, name services,
and electronic mail
Troubleshooting
network problems

“Configuring Network Clients” explains how to set up
new hosts on an existing network. “General Troubleshooting Tips” contains
hints for solving network problems.

Expanding the Network

The longer a network is in place and functioning properly,
the more your organization might want to expand its features and services.
Initially, you can increase network population by adding new hosts and
expanding network services by providing additional shared software. But
eventually, a single network will expand to the point where it can no longer
operate efficiently. That is when it must enter the fourth phase of the network
administration cycle: expansion.

Several options are available for expanding your network:

Setting up a new network and connecting it to the existing
network using a machine functioning as a router, thus creating an internetwork
Configuring
machines in users’ homes or in remote office sites and enabling these
machines to connect over telephone lines to your network
Connecting
your network to the Internet, thus enabling users on your network to
retrieve information from other systems throughout the world
Configuring
UUCP communications, enabling users to exchange files and electronic mail
with remote machines

“Configuring Routers” contains
procedures for setting up an internetwork. “Extending Your Network With PPP” explains how to set up
networking connections for nomadic computers. 

Question 3

 

Write down the main functions
of routers. Differentiate between static and dynamic routing also explain in
detail distance vector and link state routing protocols.

A router is a networking
device that forwards data packets between computer
networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on
the Internet.
A data packet is typically forwarded from
one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until
it reaches its destination node.

A router is connected to two or more data lines from
different networks.When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router
reads the network address information in the packet
to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing
policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

The main purpose of a router is to connect
multiple networks and forward packets destined either for its own networks or
other networks. A router is considered a layer-3 device
because its primary forwarding decision is based on the
information in the layer-3 IP packet, specifically the destination IP address.

• In static routing, network administrator manually enters
entries to the routing tables. But in dynamic routing, network administrator
does not have to enter any entries as the entries are auto generated.

• In dynamic routing, routing entries are generated using
complex routing algorithms. In static routing, no such algorithms are involved.

• For static routing, the action is to just do a lookup on a
table and hence does not need any processing making the hardware less costly.
But, dynamic routing algorithms involves a lot of calculations. Hence, it
requires much processing capabilities. As a result, the hardware would be
costly.

• In static routing, routers do not advertize or broadcast
any information about the links to other routers. But, in dynamic routing,
tables are generated using such information advertised by routers.

• In dynamic routing, routing tables are periodically
updated and hence are sensitive to any changes in the network. But, in static
routing, the network administrator will have to manually do any changes.

• Static routing can be used for small networks. But, for
larger networks, static routing cannot be maintained and hence dynamic routing
is used.

• In static routing, if there is a link failure,
communication would be affected till the link is up again or the administrator
manually sets up an alternate path. But, in dynamic routing, in such an event,
the routing table would be updated to have an alternate path.

• Static routing is much secure as no advertisements are
sent. But, in dynamic routing, broadcasts and advertisements happens making it
less secure.

 

In computer networking, routing is one of the most important
things that make a computer network properly work. Static routing is the
process where the administrator has to manually setup the routing entries. On
the other hand, in dynamic routing, routing tables are automatically generated
using algorithms called routing algorithms such as RIP and OSPF. For large
complicated networks, using static routing is very tedious and hence one has to
go for dynamic routing. The advantage of dynamic routing is that the routing
tables will be periodically generated and hence they would comply with any
change in the network. But the disadvantage is that the calculations in dynamic
routing require more processing power.

There are two major classes of routing protocol: distance
vector and link-state. It’s easy to remember which protocols belong to either
class, but comprehending the differences between the two classes takes a bit
more effort.

Distance vector routing is so named because it
involves two factors: the distance, or metric, of a destination,
and the vector, or direction to take to get there. Routing
information is only exchanged between directly connected neighbors. This means
a router knows from which neighbor a route was learned, but it does not know
where that neighbor learned the route; a router can’t see beyond its own
neighbors. This aspect of distance vector routing is sometimes referred to as
“routing by rumor.” Measures like split horizon and poison reverse
are employed to avoid routing loops.

Link-state routing, in contrast, requires that
all routers know about the paths reachable by all other routers in the network.
Link-state information is flooded throughout the link-state domain (an area in
OSPF or IS-IS) to ensure all routers posses a synchronized copy of the area’s
link-state database. From this common database, each router constructs its own
relative shortest-path tree, with itself as the root, for all known routes.

Consider the following topology.

Both distance vector and link-state routing protocols are
suitable for deployment on this network, but each will go about propagating
routes in a different manner.

Distance Vector

If we were to run a distance vector routing protocol like
RIP or EIGRP on this topology, here’s how R1 would see the network, assuming
each link has a metric of 1 (locally connected routes have been omitted):

Notice that although R1 has connectivity to all subnets, it
has no knowledge of the network’s structure beyond its own links. R4 has even
less insight:

Because they do not require routers to maintain the state of
all links in the network, distance vector protocols typically consume less
overhead at the expense of limited visibility. Because routers have only a
limited view of the network, tools like split horizon and poision reverse are
needed to prevent routing loops.

Link-State

Now, let’s look at the same topology running a link-state
routing protocol (in a single area). Because each router records the state of
all links in the area, each router can construct a shortest-path tree from
itself to all known destinations. Here’s what R1’s tree would look like:

R4 has constructed its own shortest-path tree, different
from that of R1:

Although maintaining link-state information for the entire
area typically requires more overhead than does processing advertisements only
from direct neighbors, but provide more robust operation and scalability.

Question 4

 

Use the given IP address 148.75.0.0 /26 and
answer the following questions:

Default subnet mask
Address Class
Custom subnet mask
Total number of subnets
Total number of host addresses
Number of usable addresses
Number of bits borrowed
What is the 3rd subnet range?
What is the subnet number for the 2nd
subnet?
What is the subnet broadcast address for
the 1st subnet?

 

Network Address                                  148.75.0.0 /26

Address class                                                 B

Default subnet mask                                255.255.0.0

Custom subnet mask                                  255.255.255.192

Total number of subnets                           1,024

Total number of host addresses              64

Number of usable addresses                    62

Number of bits borrowed                            10

Question 5

What is meant by Disaster Recovery and Data
Integrity 1 Definition of a Disaster 2 Risk Analysis

3 Legal Obligations 4 Damage Limitation 5
Preparation 6 Data Integrity.

 

1.Definition:
Disaster-a catastrophic event that causes a massive outage affecting an entire
building or site. It can be anything from a natural disaster, such as an
earthquake, to the more common problem of a stray backhoe cutting your cable by
accident.  

2.Risk Analysis.
Good candidate for using external consultants. It is a specialized skill that
is not used often. A large company may hire a consultant to perform a Risk
Analysis and have an in-house person responsible for Risk Management. Risk
analysis involves determining what disasters may happen, the chances of those
disasters, and the likely cost if a disaster of each type occurred. The company
can then use that information to decide how much money is reasonable to spend
on trying to mitigate the effects of each type of disaster. (Probably cost of
disaster – Probably cost after mitigation) X Risk of Disaster Flood
($10,000,000 – $x) X (1/1,000,000); x=$10 sets this equation to 0 Earthquake
($60,000,000 – $x) X (1/3,000); x=$20,000 sets this equation to 0 . 

3.Legal Obligations:
There may be company contract obligations. This must be included in the Risk
Analysis. Damage Limitations: Some can be done at little or no cost in some
instances -Lifting racks in flood prone areas -Lightening rods and good
grounding systems to protect against lightening -Racks bolted to the floor to
help mitigate earthquake damage Some can come at significant cost and can only
be afforded by very large companies -Building your data center underground to
protect against tornados/bombs -Expensive mechanisms to allow racks to shake
with an earthquake Fire prevention systems, UPS’s .

4.Preparation.
Being prepared for a disaster means being able to restore the essential systems
to working order in a timely manner, as defined by your legal obligations. Need
to arrange a source of replacement hardware in advance from companies that
provide this service. You also need to have another site to which this
equipment can be sent if the primary site cannot be used because of safety
reasons, lack of power, or lack of connectivity. Make sure these companies are
aware of your needs and where to send it. Once you have your machines, you need
to recreate your system. Typically, you first rebuild the systems, then you
restore from backups—data stored off-site.

5. Data Integrity.
Data integrity means ensuring your data is not altered by external sources. It
can be corrupted maliciously by viruses or individuals, or inadvertently by
individuals, bugs in programs, and undetected hardware malfunctions. There are
anecdotal methods to check for data corruption Large files checked against
“read-only” checksums Seeing large changes in a database only expected to have
small changes Industrial espionage and theft of intellectual property are not
uncommon. A company may need to prove ownership of intellectual property and
your ability to accurately restore data as it existed on a certain date may be
required in a court of law. For both disaster recovery and use as evidence in a
court of law, an administrator needs to know the data has not been tampered
with.  

6.Damage Limitation.

1.There is no plan

2.The plan is wrong or inadequate

3.The plan relies on the wrong technology

4.The plan is not properly tested

5.The plan has insufficient information management

Let’s look at these one at a time. I won’t repeat all the
scary statistics about data loss, but let me set the stage for this discussion.                                                                                                                                                          A
“disaster” can be large or small. It can be isolated to one drive array or
affect businesses in several states. When planning for a disaster, you will
need to plan for the worst case scenario. That should serve you well in all the
lesser disasters that you experience.                                                                    For this
discussion, we’re going to include the worst case scenario that assumes the
client’s office is “down” and the client has no access to the office. This
might be due to a flood, a fire, a hazardous material spill, a hurricane, a
tornado, an earthquake, or something you can’t even imagine. Remember the
businesses in Seaside Park, NJ. First they were devastated by Super Storm
Sandy. Then after ten months of rebuilding, a fire destroyed more than fifty
businesses again.

The
replication link between the two appliances must use the eth20 10 Gb
Ethernet interface.
The
data sent across the replication link is not subject to any additional
encryption beyond that which might be in place from using MQ AMS.
The
maximum latency for the replication link is 100 ms.
If the
IP addresses used for the two eth20 ports do not belong to the same subnet
(with that subnet used only for the disaster recovery configuration) then
you must set up an IP route between the eth20 ports on each appliance.
It is
recommended that the remaining 10 Gb Ethernet interfaces are used for
application traffic (eth22 and eth23 on an M2001 appliance are intended
for application traffic).